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Airoldi M.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Morton A.,Strathclyde Business School | Smith J.A.E.,Public Health England | Bevan G.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Medical Decision Making | Year: 2014

The aim of cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is to inform the allocation of scarce resources. CEA is routinely used in assessing the cost-effectiveness of specific health technologies by agencies such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in England and Wales. But there is extensive evidence that because of barriers of accessibility and acceptability, CEA has not been used by local health planners in their annual task of allocating fixed budgets to a wide range of types of health care. This paper argues that these planners can use Socio Technical Allocation of Resources (STAR) for that task. STAR builds on the principles of CEA and the practice of program budgeting and marginal analysis. STAR uses requisite models to assess the cost-effectiveness of all interventions considered for resource reallocation by explicitly applying the theory of health economics to evidence of scale, costs, and benefits, with deliberation facilitated through an interactive social process of engaging key stakeholders. In that social process, the stakeholders generate missing estimates of scale, costs, and benefits of the interventions; develop visual models of their relative cost-effectiveness; and interpret the results. We demonstrate the feasibility of STAR by showing how it was used by a local health planning agency of the English National Health Service, the Isle of Wight Primary Care Trust, to allocate a fixed budget in 2008 and 2009. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Gijon C.,Charles III University of Madrid | Whalley J.,Newcastle Business School | Anderson G.,Strathclyde Business School
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2015

It is widely argued that broadband is beneficial. Higher rates of broadband penetration and adoption are associated with enhanced economic growth, while for individuals accessing the Internet through a broadband connection opens up a range of opportunities to them. However, to enjoy these opportunities users need access to both an Internet connection as well as the possession of a range of skills. As not everyone has access to one or both of these, a range of digital divides have emerged within and between countries.This paper explores one aspect of the digital divides that have emerged, namely, speed. Broadband speeds vary considerably, reflecting many factors such as the technology(s) used, the number of users, the distance of the user from the telephone exchange and so forth. Rather than explore the digital divides that exist between countries, we focus on a single city: Glasgow.Using data from a variety of sources we explore broadband speeds across the city. While broadband speeds have improved across much of Glasgow, this is not true every part of the city. Average speeds vary considerably across the city, with the consequence that the ability to access opportunities online also varies. There is some evidence to suggest that those parts of the city with lower levels of deprivation enjoy higher broadband speeds than areas within Glasgow of higher deprivation levels. Our analysis also found that considerable variations exist between service providers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Butler R.,Strathclyde Business School | Weidenfeld A.,Hanken School of Economics
Tourism Recreation Research | Year: 2012

The Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model has been used on numerous occasions and situations to describe the destination development process but has rarely been used to explore more sophisticated and causal relationships between the development stages and other aspects of working relationships including cooperation and competition between tourism businesses in destinations. These relationships are influenced by the spatial proximity between individual firms at the local scale and agglomeration of tourism firms at the regional scale. Drawing on the knowledge of working relationships between tourism firms, this paper suggests an underlying conceptual framework for the study of the dynamic nature of the cooperation, competition, and spatial proximity between tourism firms and the interrelationships between these aspects throughout the TALC. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Butler R.,Strathclyde Business School
Tourism Recreation Research | Year: 2015

This paper reviews the development of tourism to emphasize the fact that tourism, even ‘mass tourism’, is not a new phenomenon but process which has characterized human behaviour for many centuries, and is essentially iterative in nature. To understand it fully it is necessary to review what has gone before, along with the influences of factors such as technological innovation, and social and economic changes in societies. Similarly, academic research in tourism has a long history, despite the fact that some tourism scholars and students appear to think such research is a recent development. Tourism research is best thought of as an ongoing process with varying emphases and foci at different times, beginning with essentially factual case studies, followed by a period of extensive if somewhat shallow theoretical development, and the current situation with its paradoxes and fallacies. The paper concludes with noting the suggested divisions of tourism research between management (applied) and social (theoretical) approaches, and between sophisticated statistical analysis and highly personal descriptions, which leaves many academic researchers and those in the tourist industry frustrated and disappointed by the failure to study and help resolve the real problems of tourism and its development. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Argyris N.,University of Warwick | Morton A.,Strathclyde Business School | Figueira J.R.,University of Lisbon
Operations Research | Year: 2014

We consider the problem of helping a decision maker (DM) choose from a set of multiattributed objects when her preferences are "concavifiable," i.e. representable by a concave value function. We establish conditions under which preferences or preference intensities are concavifiable. We also derive a characterization for the family of concave value functions compatible with a set of such preference statements expressed by the DM. This can be used to validate dominance relations over discrete sets of alternatives and forms the basis of an interactive procedure. We report on the practical use of this procedure with several DMs for a flat-choice problem and its computational performance on a set of project-portfolio selection problem instances. The use of preference intensities is found to provide significant improvements to the performance of the procedure. © 2014 INFORMS. Source

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