Argyris N.,University of Warwick |
Morton A.,Strathclyde Business School |
Figueira J.R.,University of Lisbon
Operations Research | Year: 2014
We consider the problem of helping a decision maker (DM) choose from a set of multiattributed objects when her preferences are "concavifiable," i.e. representable by a concave value function. We establish conditions under which preferences or preference intensities are concavifiable. We also derive a characterization for the family of concave value functions compatible with a set of such preference statements expressed by the DM. This can be used to validate dominance relations over discrete sets of alternatives and forms the basis of an interactive procedure. We report on the practical use of this procedure with several DMs for a flat-choice problem and its computational performance on a set of project-portfolio selection problem instances. The use of preference intensities is found to provide significant improvements to the performance of the procedure. © 2014 INFORMS.
PubMed | Newcastle University Business School, Strathclyde Business School and University of Glasgow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human relations; studies towards the integration of the social sciences | Year: 2015
This article develops theoretical understanding of the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs in socially transformative projects by offering a foundational theory of philanthropic identity narratives. We show that these narratives are structured according to the metaphorical framework of
Airoldi M.,The London School of Economics and Political Science |
Morton A.,Strathclyde Business School |
Smith J.A.E.,Public Health England |
Bevan G.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Medical Decision Making | Year: 2014
The aim of cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is to inform the allocation of scarce resources. CEA is routinely used in assessing the cost-effectiveness of specific health technologies by agencies such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in England and Wales. But there is extensive evidence that because of barriers of accessibility and acceptability, CEA has not been used by local health planners in their annual task of allocating fixed budgets to a wide range of types of health care. This paper argues that these planners can use Socio Technical Allocation of Resources (STAR) for that task. STAR builds on the principles of CEA and the practice of program budgeting and marginal analysis. STAR uses requisite models to assess the cost-effectiveness of all interventions considered for resource reallocation by explicitly applying the theory of health economics to evidence of scale, costs, and benefits, with deliberation facilitated through an interactive social process of engaging key stakeholders. In that social process, the stakeholders generate missing estimates of scale, costs, and benefits of the interventions; develop visual models of their relative cost-effectiveness; and interpret the results. We demonstrate the feasibility of STAR by showing how it was used by a local health planning agency of the English National Health Service, the Isle of Wight Primary Care Trust, to allocate a fixed budget in 2008 and 2009. © The Author(s) 2014.
Butler R.,Strathclyde Business School
Tourism Recreation Research | Year: 2015
This paper reviews the development of tourism to emphasize the fact that tourism, even ‘mass tourism’, is not a new phenomenon but process which has characterized human behaviour for many centuries, and is essentially iterative in nature. To understand it fully it is necessary to review what has gone before, along with the influences of factors such as technological innovation, and social and economic changes in societies. Similarly, academic research in tourism has a long history, despite the fact that some tourism scholars and students appear to think such research is a recent development. Tourism research is best thought of as an ongoing process with varying emphases and foci at different times, beginning with essentially factual case studies, followed by a period of extensive if somewhat shallow theoretical development, and the current situation with its paradoxes and fallacies. The paper concludes with noting the suggested divisions of tourism research between management (applied) and social (theoretical) approaches, and between sophisticated statistical analysis and highly personal descriptions, which leaves many academic researchers and those in the tourist industry frustrated and disappointed by the failure to study and help resolve the real problems of tourism and its development. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Gijon C.,Charles III University of Madrid |
Whalley J.,Newcastle Business School |
Anderson G.,Strathclyde Business School
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2015
It is widely argued that broadband is beneficial. Higher rates of broadband penetration and adoption are associated with enhanced economic growth, while for individuals accessing the Internet through a broadband connection opens up a range of opportunities to them. However, to enjoy these opportunities users need access to both an Internet connection as well as the possession of a range of skills. As not everyone has access to one or both of these, a range of digital divides have emerged within and between countries.This paper explores one aspect of the digital divides that have emerged, namely, speed. Broadband speeds vary considerably, reflecting many factors such as the technology(s) used, the number of users, the distance of the user from the telephone exchange and so forth. Rather than explore the digital divides that exist between countries, we focus on a single city: Glasgow.Using data from a variety of sources we explore broadband speeds across the city. While broadband speeds have improved across much of Glasgow, this is not true every part of the city. Average speeds vary considerably across the city, with the consequence that the ability to access opportunities online also varies. There is some evidence to suggest that those parts of the city with lower levels of deprivation enjoy higher broadband speeds than areas within Glasgow of higher deprivation levels. Our analysis also found that considerable variations exist between service providers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Qazi A.,Strathclyde Business School |
Quigley J.,Strathclyde Business School |
Dickson A.,Strathclyde Business School |
Kirytopoulos K.,University of South Australia
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2016
Project complexity has been extensively explored in the literature because of its contribution towards the failure of major projects in terms of cost and time overruns. Focusing on the interface of Project Complexity and Interdependency Modelling of Project Risks, we propose a new process that aids capturing interdependency between project complexity, complexity induced risks and project objectives. The proposed modelling approach is grounded in the theoretical framework of Expected Utility Theory and Bayesian Belief Networks. We consider the decision problem of identifying critical risks and selecting optimal risk mitigation strategies at the commencement stage of a project, taking into account the utility function of the decision maker with regard to the importance of project objectives and holistic interaction between project complexity and risk. The proposed process is supported by empirical research that was conducted in the construction industry and its application is illustrated through a simulation study. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Association for Project Management and the International Project Management Association
Tonner A.,Strathclyde Business School |
Wilson J.,Strathclyde Business School
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation | Year: 2015
This paper investigates rural diversification strategies, specifically focusing on farm retailing. The study reveals farmers' different motivations and experiences of structural diversification through both farmers' markets and wholly-owned farm shops. Using a qualitative study of eight farm businesses, the authors find that diversification is not always motivated by entrepreneurial objectives. Necessity (push) factors (such as agri-food market inequality) act as the catalysts transforming nascent diversification tendencies. Once the need for diversification is unlocked, farmers face an entrepreneurial choice: those with push motivations (such as risk reduction) choose non-entrepreneurial diversification in the form of farmers' markets, while those with pull motivations (such as business growth) exhibit characteristics of entrepreneurship and engage in entrepreneurial diversification in the form of on-farm retailing.
Sankaran K.,Strathclyde Business School |
Demangeot C.,Strathclyde Business School
Journal of Consumer Marketing | Year: 2011
Purpose: This paper aims to examine consumption behavior to understand how individuals become culturally plural consumers through exploratory research conducted in one of the world's most urban multi-cultural environments, the UAE. As a starting point consumption was deemed as "consummatory" in accord with Holbrook. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through 20 interviews with UAE residents. This included men and women, ages ranging from 20s to 60s, representing 11 countries from five continents. Broadly a hermeneutic approach was followed in eliciting how culturally plural consumption behaviors emerged and interpreting how the process unfolded. The study examined multicultural habits pertaining to products or services chosen by the respondents. These covered food, cuisine, books, beverages, music, dance, clothes, TV and health treatments among others. Findings: Patterns of consumption acts create a consumption behavior that may be described as extemporaneous, expedient and emergent. The nature of the consumption process depends on a host of triggers that includes culturally diverse predisposition of the consumer, multi-cultural identities, social cues, contextual factors and individuals' proclivity towards experimentalism. Taken together it is found that the praxis of becoming a culturally plural consumer is a learning process that has an emergent quality. Research limitations/implications: This study is exploratory and qualitative in nature with no firm conclusions. Practical implications: In culturally plural markets consumers have to be approached with a fine brush. Many of the current taken-for-granted ideals of marketing will be questioned by the approach suggested in this paper. As Stewart aptly said, understanding of praxis "would allow for practical action, based on edifying philosophy". Originality/value: While Holbrook's idea of consummation is a metaphor for consumption that is well-known, it is not adequately understood nor followed up with research. This inquiry into consumption praxis is a contribution to that end with significant implications for twenty-first-century marketing. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Garau G.,University of Sassari |
Lecca P.,Strathclyde Business School
International Regional Science Review | Year: 2015
This article presents a computable general equilibrium model for the region of Sardinia (Italy) with the purpose of investigating the macroeconomic impact of research and development (R&D) policies. The model incorporates induced technical change obtained through knowledge accumulation and external knowledge spillovers. It turns out that the cost of R&D policies may change according to wage setting in the region. Indeed, the likely size of the optimal subsidy that is required to reach a given target growth is lower when wages are bargained locally compared to the case where wages are bargained nationally. Furthermore, the capacity of such a policy to generate knowledge spillovers from international and interregional trade is quite modest. Indeed, the capacity of the regional system to internalize innovations embedded in imported goods is partially offset by an increase in internal efficiency that lowers the spillover intensity through a reduction in the share of imports. © The Author(s) 2013.
Tropina T.,Strathclyde Business School |
Whalley J.,Strathclyde Business School |
Curwen P.,Strathclyde Business School
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2010
Since rising to prominence in the UK, functional separation has been widely discussed as a way to address the tensions that exist between incumbent fixed-wire telecommunications operators and new entrants that use their networks. The suggestion that functional separation could be employed by national regulatory authorities to achieve structural objectives has sparked considerable discussion across the European Union (EU). Through surveying the attitudes of Member States, this paper highlights that support varies across the EU with debates being influenced by the broader political and commercial contexts within which the telecommunications industry is located. It is also shown that a key debate across the EU is the extent to which functional separation will affect the willingness of incumbent operators to invest in infrastructure. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.