Krishnen G.,ix Center for Nitrogen Fixation |
Krishnen G.,University of Sydney |
Krishnen G.,Strategic Resources Research Center |
Kecskes M.L.,ix Center for Nitrogen Fixation |
And 10 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011
Inoculant plant-growth-promoting bacteria are emerging as an important component of sustainable agriculture. There is a need to develop inexpensive methods for enumerating these organisms after their application in the field, to better understand their survival and impacts on yields. Immunoblotting is one potential method to measure viable cells, but the high cost of the conventionally used nylon membranes makes this method prohibitive. In this study, less expensive alternative materials such as filter papers, glossy photo papers, and transparencies for the purpose of colony immunoblotting were evaluated and the best substance was chosen for further studies. Whatman filter paper No. 541 combined with a 0.01 mol·L -1 H 2SO 4 rinsing step gave similar results to nylon membranes but <20% of the overall cost of the original colony immunoblotting assay. The application of the modified immunoblot method was tested on nonsterile clay soil samples that were spiked with high numbers (>10 7 CFU·g -1) of the plant-growth-promoting bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azospirillum brasilense, or Rhizobium leguminosarum. The modified protocol allowed the identification and recovery of over 50% of the inoculated cells of all three strains, amidst a background of the native soil microflora. Subsequently, the survival of P. fluorescens was successfully monitored for several months after application to field-grown rice at Jerilderie, New South Wales, Australia, thus validating the procedure. Source
Wisniewski-Dye F.,CNRS Microbial Ecology |
Borziak K.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory |
Khalsa-Moyers G.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory |
Alexandre G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville |
And 28 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011
Fossil records indicate that life appeared in marine environments ~3.5 billion years ago (Gyr) and transitioned to terrestrial ecosystems nearly 2.5 Gyr. Sequence analysis suggests that "hydrobacteria" and "terrabacteria" might have diverged as early as 3 Gyr. Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum are associated with roots of terrestrial plants; however, virtually all their close relatives are aquatic. We obtained genome sequences of two Azospirillum species and analyzed their gene origins. While most Azospirillum house-keeping genes have orthologs in its close aquatic relatives, this lineage has obtained nearly half of its genome from terrestrial organisms. The majority of genes encoding functions critical for association with plants are among horizontally transferred genes. Our results show that transition of some aquatic bacteria to terrestrial habitats occurred much later than the suggested initial divergence of hydro- and terrabacterial clades. The birth of the genus Azospirillum approximately coincided with the emergence of vascular plants on land. © 2011 Wisniewski-Dyé et al. Source
Norfaizal G.M.,Strategic Resources Research Center |
Latiff A.,National University of Malaysia
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013
Leaves anatomy of two species of Bouea, 11species of Mangifera and two species of Spondias were studied in order to see the differences in stomata type, petiole, midrib and lamina anatomy and leaf venation. This study aims to use anatomical characters for species and genus identification. Common characters observed were the absence of trichomes, closed vascular bundles, uniseriate epidermal layers, resin canal in parenchyma cells, anticline wall patterns and druses crystals in leaf lamina transverse sections. All species displayed closed vascular bundles except Mangifera pajang which showed a combination of medullary vascular bundles. Uniseriate epidermal layer was observed in all the species. All the species showed straight-wavy anticlinal walls. Druses crystals were found in the parenchyma cells of all the species. Four types of stomata were observed namely anomocytic, anisocytic, staurocytic and diacytic. Anomocytic, anisocytic and staurocytic stomata were observed in Mangifera, diacytic in Bouea and anomocytic in Spondias. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source
Saad K.A.,National University of Malaysia |
Mohamad Roff M.N.,Horticulture Research Center |
Mohd Shukri M.A.,Strategic Resources Research Center |
Mirad R.,Strategic Resources Research Center |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2014
Chilli plants release volatile organic compounds following1 insect or mechanical damage. In laboratory experiments, the behavioural responses of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were investigated by using artificially damaged and undamaged chilli plants. The headspace volatiles released by the plants were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the preference of adult whiteflies varied with the time after damage induction. No significant difference in distribution of whiteflies was noted between artificially damaged and undamaged chilli plants within 1 and 3 h of damage induction. However, whitefly adults preferably aggregated on undamaged chilli plants than on artificially damaged plants after 6 and 24 h of damage induction. Further, the artificially damaged plants were less preferred for subsequent oviposition than undamaged chilli plants. There was a significant quantitative difference (p<0.05) in the levels of volatile monoterpenes, i.e., a-pinene, p-cymene and P-phellandrene, in artificially damaged plants after 24 h of damage induction compared with that in undamaged plants and artificially damaged plants after 1 h of damage induction. The increased emission of these volatile compounds might have altered the preference of whiteflies, leading them to avoid artificially damaged chilli plants. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Parcsi G.,University of New South Wales |
Pillai S.M.,University of New South Wales |
Pillai S.M.,Strategic Resources Research Center |
Sohn J.H.,Korean Embassy |
And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the 2011 7th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, ISSNIP 2011 | Year: 2011
Continued population growth, expansion of poultry production and urban encroachment has resulted in increased odour complaints from local residents. Odour management has typically been based on buffer distances, however poultry expansion now requires accurate and reliable odour monitoring data for setting-up new broiler sheds and enlarging existing farms. Current olfactory and chemical based methods do not provide effective real-time monitoring, particularly for detecting unknown compounds. Senso-instrumental systems such as eNOSE offer potential odour monitoring opportunities, however current non-specific sensor array configurations are inappropriate for detecting the major contributing odorants to odour annoyance. GC-MS/O analysis of poultry shed emissions was used to identify the major contributing volatile organic compounds in terms of odour impact and chemical abundance. These compounds can now be used to develop sensor array configurations that detect odorous compounds associated with poultry shed emissions. © 2011 IEEE. Source