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Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Bertelkamp C.,Ghent University | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | And 10 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

This study investigated organic micropollutant (OMP) biodegradation rates in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating river bank filtration (RBF) processes. The dosed OMP mixture consisted of 11 pharmaceuticals, 6 herbicides, 2 insecticides and 1 solvent. Columns were filled with soil from a RBF site and were fed with four different organic carbon fractions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, transphilic and river water organic matter (RWOM)). Additionally, the effect of a short-term OMP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) shock-load (e.g. quadrupling the OMP concentrations and doubling the DOC concentration) on OMP biodegradation rates was investigated to assess the resilience of RBF systems. The results obtained in this study imply that - in contrast to what is observed for managed aquifer recharge systems operating on wastewater effluent - OMP biodegradation rates are not affected by the type of organic carbon fraction fed to the soil column, in case of stable operation. No effect of a short-term DOC shock-load on OMP biodegradation rates between the different organic carbon fractions was observed. This means that the RBF site simulated in this study is resilient towards transient higher DOC concentrations in the river water. However, a temporary OMP shock-load affected OMP biodegradation rates observed for the columns fed with the river water organic matter (RWOM) and the hydrophilic fraction of the river water organic matter. These different biodegradation rates did not correlate with any of the parameters investigated in this study (cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP), DOC removal, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), richness/evenness of the soil microbial population or OMP category (hydrophobicity/charge). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Verliefde Bertelkamp A.R.D.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2014

Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was produced focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources concerned groundwater, surface water, surface water with artificial recharge and river bank filtration. Treatment schemes concerned no treatment, conventional treatment, advanced treatment and conventional plus advanced treatment. The response covered 73% of the population to which drinking water is supplied by the utilities joint in Eureau. Groundwater and surface water are the major raw water sources (>90%). In total, 59% of the drinking water supply concerns not-treated drinking water or drinking water treated with only conventional technologies, while 12% of the drinking water is not disinfected. Challenges for the European drinking water sector are the contamination of raw water sources with emerging substances, absence of disinfection and the potential formation of disinfection by-products. These challenges entail research needs such as the development of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) to better understand and predict the removal rates of treatment technologies for emerging contaminants, the introduction of Water Safety Plans to safeguard the hygienic quality of drinking water, and the optimization of disinfection processes and strategies. © IWA Publishing 2014.

Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Bertelkamp C.,Ghent University | Verliefde A.R.D.,Ghent University | Schoutteten K.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features - it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45. days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration. © 2015.

Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Bertelkamp C.,Ghent University | Reungoat J.,University of Queensland | Cornelissen E.R.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

This study investigated sorption and biodegradation behaviour of 14 organic micropollutants (OMP) in soil columns representative of the first metre (oxic conditions) of the river bank filtration (RBF) process. Breakthrough curves were modelled to differentiate between OMP sorption and biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the OMP biodegradation rate could be related to the physico-chemical properties (charge, hydrophobicity and molecular weight) or functional groups of the OMPs. Although trends were observed between charge or hydrophobicity and the biodegradation rate for charged compounds, a statistically significant linear relationship for the complete OMP mixture could not be obtained using these physico-chemical properties. However, a statistically significant relationship was obtained between biological degradation rates and the OMP functional groups. The presence of ethers and carbonyl groups will increase biodegradability, while the presence of amines, ring structures, aliphatic ethers and sulphur will decrease biodegradability. This predictive model based on functional groups can be used by drinking water companies to make a first estimate whether a newly detected compound will be biodegraded during the first metre of RBF or that additional treatment is required.In addition, the influence of active and inactive biomass (biosorption), sand grains and the water matrix on OMP sorption was found to be negligible under the conditions investigated in this study. Retardation factors for most compounds were close to 1, indicating mobile behaviour of these compounds during soil passage. Adaptation of the biomass towards the dosed OMPs was not observed for a 6 month period, implying that new developed RBF sites might not be able to biodegrade compounds such as atrazine and sulfamethoxazole in the first few months of operation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

De Goede M.,Technical University of Delft | Enserink B.,Technical University of Delft | Worm I.,Ignaz Worm | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center
Water Policy | Year: 2016

The Dutch drinking water sector has been benchmarked every 3 years since 1997, and the sector has significantly improved performance since then.Based on interviews withCEOs and financial managers of drinkingwater companies five drivers for improvement as a result of this benchmark are identified: 'learning effect', 'enhanced transparency', 'managed competition', 'avoidance of negative consequences' and 'personal honour of director'. Different developments have caused stagnation of further improvement: The variation on the benchmarked performance indicators has decreased, participation in the benchmark became mandatory for all Dutch drinking water supply organizations, it lacks a focus on the future, and participating organizations experience high financial pressure. These developments decrease the influence of the drivers. Four possible new impulses for the benchmark are identified and their influence on the effect of the drivers is analysed. The two most promising new impulses are tomake the benchmark adaptive and to involve consumers in the process of benchmarking, both have a positive influence on the effect of almost all drivers. This study contributes to the understanding of how benchmarking leads to improvement and to the analysis of the impact of design choices, leading to well-founded decisions for re-design of the Dutch drinking water benchmark.

Etchepare R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Etchepare R.,CAPES Foundation | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center
Water Research | Year: 2015

In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang F.,Technical University of Delft | van Halem D.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | De Fooij H.,Strategic Center | Struker A.,Strategic Center
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2016

Resources are becoming scarce. Therefore, reuse of resources is becoming more and more attractive. Wastewater can be used as a resource, since it contains many resources like organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals, thermal energy, etc. This study focused on the reuse of organic matter and phosphorus from Amsterdam's wastewater. There is a wide variety of possible alternatives, and the technical options are growing. The problem is not the availability of technology for resource recovery, but the lack of a planning and design methodology to identify and deploy the most sustainable solutions in a given context. To explore alternative, coherent and viable strategies regarding resource recovery from Amsterdam's wastewater chain, the development process of dynamic adaptive policy pathways was used. In the first phase a material flow analysis was made for Amsterdam's wastewater chain and analyzed for water, organic matter and phosphorus. In the second phase measures were identified and characterized. The characterization was based on criteria focusing on changes in material flows, recovered products and implementation horizon. For the Amsterdam case recovered products concerned alginic acid, bioplastic, cellulose, phosphorus and biogas. In the third phase the measures were combined into strategies, which are combinations of measures that focus on a specific goal of resource recovery. For the Amsterdam case this resulted in four strategies: a strategy focusing on production of alginic acid, a strategy focusing on production of bioplastics, a strategy focusing on recovery of cellulose, and a strategy focusing on recovery of phosphorus. Adaptive policymaking showed to be a good approach to deal with the wide variety of possibilities and uncertainties. It resulted in a coherent policy as the resource recovery goals became clear, a flexible policy as the lock-in, no-regret and win-win measures could be identified, and an up-to-date policy as a periodic update is possible that will reveal new chances and risks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | Izar Tenorio J.L.,Technical University of Delft | Hellinga C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination | Year: 2014

For the Green Village at the campus of Delft University of Technology, an autarkic water circuit was developed. The aim was to avoid connections to the public water supply system, the sewerage, the electricity grid and cable systems. It should produce its own drinking water and electricity, and clean its organic waste streams in a sustainable way. Due to the strict Dutch drinking water regulations, only one water quality will be supplied: drinking water. Drinking water will be produced from greywater (53%) supplemented with rainwater (47%). In the treatment scheme, the multiple barrier approach will be used to comply with the Dutch drinking water quality standards. For greywater treatment, a triple barrier is suggested: ozonation – ultrafiltration – UV disinfection. For rainwater treatment a dual barrier is suggested: ultrafiltration – UV disinfection. By separating wastewater streams at the point of origin into greywater and blackwater, and by replacing conventional toilets with low water consumption vacuum systems as part of the water conservation measures, it will be possible to collect a concentrated blackwater stream suitable for recovery energy. For this purpose the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is suggested. The proposed water circuit results in an autarkic water management, but not in an autarkic energy management. © IWA Publishing 2014.

van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | Struker A.,Strategic Center | de Danschutter J.E.M.,Strategic Center
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2015

ABTRACT: Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. The flows of energy, water and resources within the urban environment have a large potential to contribute to this ambition. Through a transition from a linear usage of resources and waste production towards a sustainable management of urban resources with circular flows of resources, the sustainability of cities can be increased. This Urban Harvesting Concept may be applied in Amsterdam. The challenge is how to operationalize this concept in practice. For two municipal companies in Amsterdam, Waternet (responsible for the water management) and AEB (the waste-to-energy company), initiatives were identified on how to do this. The focus is on water, energy, waste and material flows. Circular flows result in economic benefits and sustainability benefits, either expressed as Ecopoints or CO2-emissions. The integration of these flows is especially beneficial. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

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