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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | De Fooij H.,Strategic Center | Struker A.,Strategic Center
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2016

Resources are becoming scarce. Therefore, reuse of resources is becoming more and more attractive. Wastewater can be used as a resource, since it contains many resources like organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals, thermal energy, etc. This study focused on the reuse of organic matter and phosphorus from Amsterdam's wastewater. There is a wide variety of possible alternatives, and the technical options are growing. The problem is not the availability of technology for resource recovery, but the lack of a planning and design methodology to identify and deploy the most sustainable solutions in a given context. To explore alternative, coherent and viable strategies regarding resource recovery from Amsterdam's wastewater chain, the development process of dynamic adaptive policy pathways was used. In the first phase a material flow analysis was made for Amsterdam's wastewater chain and analyzed for water, organic matter and phosphorus. In the second phase measures were identified and characterized. The characterization was based on criteria focusing on changes in material flows, recovered products and implementation horizon. For the Amsterdam case recovered products concerned alginic acid, bioplastic, cellulose, phosphorus and biogas. In the third phase the measures were combined into strategies, which are combinations of measures that focus on a specific goal of resource recovery. For the Amsterdam case this resulted in four strategies: a strategy focusing on production of alginic acid, a strategy focusing on production of bioplastics, a strategy focusing on recovery of cellulose, and a strategy focusing on recovery of phosphorus. Adaptive policymaking showed to be a good approach to deal with the wide variety of possibilities and uncertainties. It resulted in a coherent policy as the resource recovery goals became clear, a flexible policy as the lock-in, no-regret and win-win measures could be identified, and an up-to-date policy as a periodic update is possible that will reveal new chances and risks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | Struker A.,Strategic Center | de Danschutter J.E.M.,Strategic Center
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2015

ABTRACT: Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. The flows of energy, water and resources within the urban environment have a large potential to contribute to this ambition. Through a transition from a linear usage of resources and waste production towards a sustainable management of urban resources with circular flows of resources, the sustainability of cities can be increased. This Urban Harvesting Concept may be applied in Amsterdam. The challenge is how to operationalize this concept in practice. For two municipal companies in Amsterdam, Waternet (responsible for the water management) and AEB (the waste-to-energy company), initiatives were identified on how to do this. The focus is on water, energy, waste and material flows. Circular flows result in economic benefits and sustainability benefits, either expressed as Ecopoints or CO2-emissions. The integration of these flows is especially beneficial. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Etchepare R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center
Water Research | Year: 2015

In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Van Der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | Van Der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Verliefde Bertelkamp A.R.D.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2014

Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was produced focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources concerned groundwater, surface water, surface water with artificial recharge and river bank filtration. Treatment schemes concerned no treatment, conventional treatment, advanced treatment and conventional plus advanced treatment. The response covered 73% of the population to which drinking water is supplied by the utilities joint in Eureau. Groundwater and surface water are the major raw water sources (>90%). In total, 59% of the drinking water supply concerns not-treated drinking water or drinking water treated with only conventional technologies, while 12% of the drinking water is not disinfected. Challenges for the European drinking water sector are the contamination of raw water sources with emerging substances, absence of disinfection and the potential formation of disinfection by-products. These challenges entail research needs such as the development of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) to better understand and predict the removal rates of treatment technologies for emerging contaminants, the introduction of Water Safety Plans to safeguard the hygienic quality of drinking water, and the optimization of disinfection processes and strategies. © IWA Publishing 2014.

Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Bertelkamp C.,Ghent University | van der Hoek J.P.,Technical University of Delft | van der Hoek J.P.,Strategic Center | And 10 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

This study investigated organic micropollutant (OMP) biodegradation rates in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating river bank filtration (RBF) processes. The dosed OMP mixture consisted of 11 pharmaceuticals, 6 herbicides, 2 insecticides and 1 solvent. Columns were filled with soil from a RBF site and were fed with four different organic carbon fractions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, transphilic and river water organic matter (RWOM)). Additionally, the effect of a short-term OMP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) shock-load (e.g. quadrupling the OMP concentrations and doubling the DOC concentration) on OMP biodegradation rates was investigated to assess the resilience of RBF systems. The results obtained in this study imply that - in contrast to what is observed for managed aquifer recharge systems operating on wastewater effluent - OMP biodegradation rates are not affected by the type of organic carbon fraction fed to the soil column, in case of stable operation. No effect of a short-term DOC shock-load on OMP biodegradation rates between the different organic carbon fractions was observed. This means that the RBF site simulated in this study is resilient towards transient higher DOC concentrations in the river water. However, a temporary OMP shock-load affected OMP biodegradation rates observed for the columns fed with the river water organic matter (RWOM) and the hydrophilic fraction of the river water organic matter. These different biodegradation rates did not correlate with any of the parameters investigated in this study (cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP), DOC removal, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), richness/evenness of the soil microbial population or OMP category (hydrophobicity/charge). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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