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Beaudoin M.E.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Schmorrow D.D.,Office of the Secretary of Defense
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This paper provides a summary of the presentations presented in the Operational Neuroscience session during Augmented Cognition International 2011 at Human Computer Interaction International 2011 in Orlando, Florida, July, 2011. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Lewin J.J.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | Choi E.J.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Ling G.,Darpa
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2016

Purpose. Developmental pharmaceutical manufacturing systems and techniques designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional batch processing methods are described. Summary. Conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing processes do not adequately address the needs of military and civilian patient populations and healthcare providers. Recent advances within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Battlefield Medicine program suggest that miniaturized, flexible platforms for end-to-end manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are possible. Advances in continuous-flow synthesis, chemistry, biological engineering, and downstream processing, coupled with online analytics, automation, and enhanced process control measures, pave the way for disruptive innovation to improve the pharmaceutical supply chain and drug manufacturing base. These new technologies, along with current and ongoing advances in regulatory science, have the future potential to (1) permit "on demand" drug manufacturing on the battlefield and in other austere environments, (2) enhance the level of preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats, (3) enhance health authorities' ability to respond to natural disasters and other catastrophic events, (4) minimize shortages of drugs, (5) address gaps in the orphan drug market, (6) support and enable the continued drive toward precision medicine, and (7) enhance access to needed medications in underserved areas across the globe. Conclusion. Modular platforms under development by DARPA's Battlefield Medicine program may one day improve the safety, efficiency, and timeliness of drug manufacturing. Copyright © 2016, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc.

Moton J.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | James B.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Colella W.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference | Year: 2013

This research analyzes the engineering performance, manufacturing methods, and capital costs of electrochemical hydrogen compression (EHC) systems. EHCs are similar in mechanical structure to low temperature (LT) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems (FCSs) and share common operating principles with them. This research applies a design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) analysis to EHC. Model results indicate that, at low pressures, the three primary cost drivers for the EHC stack are the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), the stamped bipolar plates, and the expanded titanium (Ti) cell supports. As outlet pressure increases, costs increase non-linearly. Higher operating pressure systems are more expensive due in part to the impact of hydrogen back-diffusion (resulting in more cells per system) and mechanical loads (resulting in more tie rod mass). EHC stack costs are roughly equivalent to EHC balance of plant (BOP) costs, such that total EHC system costs are roughly double stack costs. Copyright © 2013 Delta Energy and Environment.

Colella W.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference | Year: 2013

This research focuses on resolving constraints in our global energy supply chains with next generation stationary fuel cell systems (FCSs). Within the present-day electricity supply chain, a primary energy efficiency constraint is the process of electricity generation; a primary air pollution constraint is with power plants under fast ramping conditions. To address these constraints, this research work examines the thermodynamics, chemical engineering process plant design, economics, and environmental impacts of combined heat and power (CHP), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP), and fast ramping stationary FCSs. Model results indicate that the marginal increase in CHP FCS costs from adding heat recovery capability is moderate for capital costs but significant for installation costs. CCHP FCSs coupled with absorption chillers produce higher net electrical and cooling efficiencies than competing technologies. The marginal cost increase from an inability to electrically ramp quickly is estimated as ~$2,000/kilowattelectric (kWe) for a 1 kWe FCSs. Copyright © 2013 Delta Energy and Environment.

Colella W.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | James B.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference | Year: 2013

This research analyzes the capital costs, electrical subsystem configurations (ESCs), and installation costs for combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs). A series of models were developed for these analyses. Model results indicate that for the same global installed capacity, having fewer larger systems appears to be more economical, in terms of both capital and installation costs, compared with installing many smaller systems. Primary capital cost drivers include (1) the fuel cell stack and (2) the fuel processor's balance of plant (BOP). Primary cost drivers for the ESC equipment include (1) grid-integration design approach, (2) FCS size, and (3) fuel cell type and/or the ability of the FCS to ramp quickly. Primary cost drivers for installation include (1) the costs of installing piping, (2) the costs of trenching conduits for electrical circuits, and (3) contingencies. Copyright © 2013 Delta Energy and Environment.

Colella W.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference | Year: 2013

This research applies the Theory of Constraints to current and future global energy supply chains. Within conventional automotive supply chains, the greatest constraint to energy efficiency is typically at the point of vehicle use. Within a future transport supply chain based on hydrogen (H2)-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), the energy efficiency constraint shifts to include not only the vehicle but also the process of producing H2 fuel. To address this constraint, this research analyzes an innovative approach for producing H2 fuel efficiently: tri-generative stationary high temperature (HT) fuel cell systems (FCSs) that simultaneously produce electricity, heat, and hydrogen fuel (H2-FCSs). This research discusses H2-FCS thermodynamics, chemical engineering process plant design, economics, and environmental impacts. Thermodynamic models indicate that H2-FCSs use ~19% less fuel to produce electricity, compared with standard stationary FCSs, and ~16% less fuel, compared with standalone steam methane reformers (SMRs). Copyright © 2013 Delta Energy and Environment.

James B.D.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Spisak A.B.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Colella W.G.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2014

This article presents a design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) methodology for estimating the capital costs of new, emerging energy technologies built at varying rates of mass-production. The methodology consists of four major steps: (1) System Conceptual Design, (2) System Physical Design, (3) Cost Modeling, and (4) Continuous Improvement to Reduce Cost. The article describes the application of this methodology to a specific case study of automotive fuel cell systems (FCSs). Because any alternative automotive technology must compete with the very mature and widespread gasoline internal combustion engine, it is vitally important to identify the performance, design, and manufacturing conditions needed to reduce automotive FCS costs. Thus, a DFMA-style analysis is applied to the cost to manufacture a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) FCS for cars, at varying rates of production (between 1,000 and 500,000 vehicles per year). The results of this kind of DFMA-style analysis can be used to elucidate key cost drivers at varying levels of production for new energy technologies. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Maher M.M.,Darpa | Smith A.C.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc. | Margiotta J.,Strategic Analysis Enterprises, Inc.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense. © 2014 SPIE.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 148.62K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: For this project, we propose to modify our existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to conduct automated discourse analysis on original documents produced by the People"s War Group (PWG) in India. Using templates developed by Toman et al (2010) we will evaluate our ability to automatically identify and measure shifts in in-group alliance building, out-group distancing, and the cognitive complexity of PWG senior leadership, as expressed in their writings in the group"s newsletter the People"s March. If successful, these techniques will facilitate the development of prototype software that will allow analysts to monitor, assess, and forecast, in near real time, the consequences of shifts in rhetoric employed by insurgent and extremist organizations. BENEFIT: Commercial applications will involve a data and analysis subscription service for clients in the defense, intelligence, and diplomatic domains, along with customized analysis and training.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 743.05K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: In our Phase 1 SBIR effort (Discourse Analysis for Insights into Group Identity and Intent), SAE conducted a pilot study to assess whether its suite of natural language processing techniques could be adapted to automatically extract meaningful discourse measures from extremist group literature (cognitive complexity, idea density, vocabulary diversity, and sentiments expressed toward in and out-groups). We also demonstrated that these discourse indicators significantly increased our ability to predict future extremist group attacks, at least in the case of the Peoples War Group (PWG) in India. In Phase 2 of the project, we propose to extend this line of work by (1) refining our measures and assessing their generalizability to other English-speaking groups (2) assessing the extent to which we can automatically process discourse in multiple western (French and Spanish) and non-Western (Urdu, Pashto, Mandarin, and Arabic) foreign languages and (3) developing a prototype system that will allow analysts to apply our techniques themselves in useful ways to enhance their missions. BENEFIT: Military and intelligence analysts (i.e., the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), routinely scrutinize statements, blog postings, videos and other literature generated by extremist organizations for clues about their future potential and intent to engage in violent attacks on US interests. This is a painstaking, labor-intensive process to identify what are often subtle shifts in rhetorical expositions. Moreover, even well-trained analysts will have difficulty systematically assessing how changes in one discourse indicator interact with changes in other discourse indicators, and how these interactions are likely to affect the probability of increases in violent attacks. If current trends continue, volume of extremist literature should continue to increase, while budgetary pressures reduce manpower allocations required to keep up with it. Our automated Discourse analysis system could be a significant asset to the extent that it could be applied in near real time to monitor trends and shifts in the use of discourse mechanisms across multiple organizations using multiple languages, and cue the analysts to specific document clusters that may require a more thorough examination and a more focused, nuanced interpretation. Thus, rather than spending 90% of their time collecting data and 10% of their time assessing it, with the aid of our tools, we can alter this ratio in a more cost-effective and useful direction.

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