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Barnett G.C.,University of Cambridge | Barnett G.C.,Strangeways Research Laboratories | De Meerleer G.,Ghent University | Gulliford S.L.,Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Aims: A variety of dosimetric parameters have been shown to influence the incidence of late radiation toxicity. The effect of other treatment- and patient-related factors is less well established. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of such factors in the development of late symptoms after radical radiotherapy to the prostate. Materials and methods: Patient- and treatment-related factors that are thought to influence the development of late toxicity were analysed in 788 patients who had received radical radiotherapy to the prostate in the Medical Research Council RT01 trial. Late toxicity data were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Late Effects of Normal Tissues/Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic, Royal Marsden Hospital and the University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index. Acute toxicity was measured using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading system. Results: On multivariate analysis, acute bowel toxicity was statistically significantly associated with increased proctitis (hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.24; P= 0.003) and increased stool frequency (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.27, 2.46; P= 0.001). Hypertension was strongly associated with a decreased risk of poor urinary stream (hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.71; P= 0.009). There was an increased risk of rectal bleeding with increased age (hazard ratio = 1.04 per year of age, 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.08; P= 0.009). As expected, a higher prescribed dose increased the risk of several late toxicity end points. Although acute bladder toxicity was associated with the presence of bladder symptoms at 5 years, the effect disappeared for all symptoms except increased urinary frequency and haematuria when a change in bladder function from baseline was calculated. Patients with any pretreatment bladder symptoms were more likely to report increased urinary frequency (hazard ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.48, 2.95; P<. 0.0005), increased urinary incontinence (hazard ratio = 4.22, 95% confidence interval 2.13, 8.35; P<. 0.0005) and decreased stream (hazard ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 4.31; P<. 0.0005), after treatment and before the most recent follow-up assessment. Conclusions: In this study, increased acute gastrointestinal and bladder symptoms and prescribed dose were associated with increased late radiation toxicity. The presence of hypertension seemed to be protective for the development of late effects. Baseline symptoms should be taken into account when radiation toxicity is analysed. © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists.


Talbot C.J.,University of Leicester | Tanteles G.A.,University of Leicester | Barnett G.C.,University of Cambridge | Barnett G.C.,Strangeways Research Laboratories | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Response to radiotherapy varies between individuals both in terms of efficacy and adverse reactions. Finding genetic determinants of radiation response would allow the tailoring of the treatment, either by altering the radiation dose or by surgery. Despite a growing number of studies in radiogenomics, there are no well-replicated genetic association results.Methods:We carried out a candidate gene association study and replicated the result using three additional large cohorts, a total of 2036 women scored for adverse reactions to radiotherapy for breast cancer.Results:Genetic variation near the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene is shown to affect several clinical endpoints including breast induration, telangiectasia and overall toxicity. In the combined analysis homozygosity for the rare allele increases overall toxicity (P=0.001) and chance of being in the upper quartile of risk with odds ratio of 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.52-3.98).Conclusion:We have identified that alleles of the class III major histocompatibility complex region associate with overall radiotherapy toxicity in breast cancer patients by using internal replication through a staged design. This is the first well-replicated report of a genetic predictor for radiotherapy reactions. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.


Barnett G.C.,University of Cambridge | Barnett G.C.,Strangeways Research Laboratories | Elliott R.M.,Christie Hospital | Alsner J.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 20 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85-1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mitra A.V.,Institute of Cancer Research | Jameson C.,Foundation Trust | Barbachano Y.,Foundation Trust | Sodha N.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 10 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2010

Prostate cancers in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more aggressive than morphologically similar cancers in men without these mutations. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic feature of prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study cohort comprised 20 cases of prostate cancer in mutation carriers and 126 control sporadic prostate cancers. Of the combined sample cohort, 65.7% stained only within malignant tissues while 0.7% stained in both malignant and benign tissues (p<0.001). Significantly increased expression of Ki-67 occurred in prostate cancers with higher Gleason score (p<0.001). Elevated Ki-67 expression was identified in 71% of prostate cancers in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and in 67% of the sporadic controls (p>0.5). Similar results were obtained when the data were analysed using a threshold set at 3.5 and 7.1%. This study shows that elevated expression of Ki-67 is associated both with aggressive prostate cancers and with high Gleason score irrespective of whether their occurrence is against a background of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or as sporadic disease. The data suggest that, since elevated Ki-67 does not distinguish prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers from sporadic prostatic malignancies, the effects of these genetic mutations are probably independent. While all prostate cancers occurring in the presence of BRCA germline mutations are clinically aggressive, their potentially different phenotypes consistently involve maximal rates of cell proliferation.

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