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Bucharest, Romania

Pavel M.D.,Technical University of Delft | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | Masarati P.,Polytechnic of Milan | Zaichik L.,TsAGI | And 8 more authors.
Progress in Aerospace Sciences | Year: 2015

The aviation community relies heavily on flight simulators as a fundamental tool for research, pilot training and development of any new aircraft design. The goal of the present paper is to provide a review on how effective ground simulation is as an assessment tool for unmasking adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (APC/RPC). Although it is generally believed that simulators are not reliable in revealing the existence of A/RPC tendencies, the paper demonstrates that a proper selection of high-gain tasks combined with appropriate motion and visual cueing can reveal negative features of a particular aircraft that may lead to A/RPC. The paper discusses new methods for real-time A/RPC detection that can be used as a tool for unmasking adverse A/RPC. Although flight simulators will not achieve the level of reality of in-flight testing, exposing A/RPC tendencies in the simulator may be the only convenient safe place to evaluate the wide range of conditions that could produce hazardous A/RPC events. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pavel M.D.,Technical University of Delft | Malecki J.,PZL Swidnik | DangVu B.,ONERA | Masarati P.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 5 more authors.
Annual Forum Proceedings - AHS International | Year: 2012

Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and suppressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as Aircraft (Rotorcraft)-Pilot Couplings (A/RPCs) is a challenging problem for the designers. The goal of the present paper is to give an overview of the current status of A/RPCs from the European project ARISTOTEL (Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection, 2010-2013 www.aristotel-proiect.eu). It will be demonstrated that present and future trends on A/RPCs, show that, modern designs seem more RPC prone than their predecessors. The test results of a first bio-dynamic testing campaign performed in ARJSTOTEL show that biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) problems depend not only on more obvious features such as pilot weight and posture but also on more elusive factors such as pilot workload, task and manipulator characteristics. The greatest pilot handling qualities rating worsening due to biodynamic interaction between the pilot and the elastic accelerations corresponded to a central stick system. Copyright © 2012 by the American Helicopter Society International, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Pavel M.D.,Technical University of Delft | Masarati P.,Polytechnic of Milan | Gennaretti M.,Third University of Rome | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Aerospace Sciences | Year: 2015

Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pavel M.D.,Technical University of Delft | Jump M.,University of Liverpool | Dang-Vu B.,ONERA | Masarati P.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Progress in Aerospace Sciences | Year: 2013

Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and suppressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as aircraft (rotorcraft)-pilot couplings (A/RPCs) is a challenging problem for the designers. The goal of the present paper is to give an overview on the state-of-the-art in RPC problem, underlining the future challenges in this field. It is shown that, exactly as in the case of fixed wing APCs, RPCs existed from the beginning of rotorcraft development and that the problem of eliminating them is not yet solved: the current rotorcraft modelling for RPC analysis is rather limited to the particular case analysed and there is a lack of quantitative pilot behavioural models to analyse RPCs. The paper underlines the importance of involuntary pilot control actions, generally attributed to biodynamic couplings in predicting RPCs in rotorcraft. It is also shown that recent experiences demonstrate that modern rotorcraft seem to embed tendencies predisposing the flight control system FCS system towards dangerous RPCs. As the level of automation is likely to increase in future designs, extending to smaller aircraft and to different kinds of operation, the consequences of the pilot 'fighting' the FCS system and inducing A/RPCs needs to be eradicated. In Europe, the ARISTOTEL project (2010-2013) has been launched with the aim of understanding and predicting modern aircraft's susceptibility to A/RPC. The present paper gives an overview of future challenges to be solved for RPC-free design and some new solutions herein. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pavel M.D.,Technical University of Delft | Malecki J.,PZL Swidnik | DangVu B.,ONERA | Masarati P.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 6 more authors.
37th European Rotorcraft Forum 2011, ERF 2011 | Year: 2011

Fixed and rotary wing pilots alike are familiar with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. Understanding, predicting and supressing these inadvertent and sustained aircraft oscillations, known as Aircraft (Rotorcraft)-Pilot Couplings (A/RPCs) is a challenging problem for the designers. Recent experiences show that especially modern designs are being confronted with an increasing degree of dangerous A/RPCs. The reason for this is that modern aircraft feature a significant level of automation in their Flight-Control-Systems (FCS). FCS is generally intended to relieve pilot workload and allow operations in degraded weather and visibility conditions. Especially in the modern rotorcraft, there seem to be embedded tendencies predisposing the FCS system towards dangerous RPCs. As the level of automation is likely to increase in future designs, extending to smaller aircraft and to different kinds of operation, the consequences of the pilot 'fighting' the FCS system and inducing A/RPCs needs to be eradicated. In Europe, the ARISTOTEL project (2010-2013) has been launched with the aim of understanding and predicting modern aircraft's susceptibility to A/RPC. The present paper gives an overview of the current status in RPCs and what can be expected in future designs. Source

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