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Cicirello V.A.,Stockton University
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation

The natural encoding for many search and optimization problems is the permutation, such as the traveling salesperson, vehicle routing, scheduling, assignment and mapping problems, among others. The effectiveness of a given mutation or crossover operator depends upon the nature of what the permutation represents. For some problems, it is the absolute locations of the elements that most directly influences solution fitness; while for others, element adjacencies or even element precedences are most important. Different permutation operators respect different properties. We aim to provide the genetic algorithm or metaheuristic practitioner with a framework enabling effective permutation search landscape analysis. To this end, we contribute a new family of optimization problems, the permutation in a haystack, that can be parameterized to the various types of permutation problem (e.g., absolute versus relative positioning). Additionally, we propose a calculus of search landscapes, enabling analysis of search landscapes through examination of local fitness rates of change. We use our approach to analyze the behavior of common permutation mutation operators on a variety of permutation in a haystack landscapes; and empirically validate the prescriptive power of the search landscape calculus via experiments with simulated annealing. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Wang J.,Stockton University
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence

We investigate the open issue of the limit of computer intelligence. A person’s subjective self is his/her inner ego. Reasoning logically, we disprove the statement “a digital robot can be programmed to have subjective self” by showing that “subjective self” is unitary and un- duplicable while computer codes are duplicable; therefore, subjective self-identity, “I”, cannot be achieved on electronic computers through programming. The potential of electronic computers is not unlimited. A digital robot can be super-intelligent and super-capable in near future, but it will have no subjective self-identity and self-consciousness. Humanoid robots will not be a “species” as humans. How to deal with such a “species” is now an imminent and critical issue for our humanity. © 2016 CESER PUBLICATIONS. Source

DiMaggio E.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Campisano C.J.,Arizona State University | Rowan J.,Arizona State University | Dupont-Nivet G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.

(K.E.R.) Sedimentary basins in eastern Africa preserve a record of continental rifting and contain important fossil assemblages for interpreting hominin evolution. However, the record of hominin evolution between 3 and 2.5 million years ago (Ma) is poorly documented in surface outcrops, particularly in Afar, Ethiopia. Here we present the discovery of a 2.84- to 2.58-million-year-old fossil and hominin-bearing sediments in the Ledi-Geraru research area of Afar, Ethiopia, that have produced the earliest record of the genus Homo. Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probably arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, which is in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time. Geological analyses constrain depositional and structural models of Afar and date the LD 350-1 Homo mandible to 2.80 to 2.75 Ma. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved. Source

Lester D.,Stockton University
Psychological Reports

Orehek, Sasota, Kruglanski, Dechesne, and Ridgeway (2014) reported that priming students with self-construals (reading paragraphs focusing on the self vs others) increased their general fear of death. The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale measures the fear of death of the self separately from the fear of death of others, and so it was predicted that priming students with self-construals would affect only the fear of death of self. Using a sample of 64 female and 27 male undergraduate students (M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.6), an attempt was made to replicate Orehek’s finding, having the students read the same paragraphs used by Orehek, et al . prior to completing the fear of death scale. Scores on the Collett-Lester scale for the fears of death of self, dying of self, death of others, and dying of others were not affected by self-construal priming, thereby not replicating the effect of self-construing on the fear of death nor the present hypothesis. © Psychological Reports 2015. Source

Nzuki F.,Stockton University
International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education

This study examines graphing calculator affordances in learning mathematics among college precalculus students. The study draws from the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) and the "Intelligent Technology" theoretical framework proposed by Salomon, Perkins, and Globerson (1991). From these perspectives the effects "with" the graphing calculator technology include the potential for this technology to offload students' extraneous cognitive load (e.g., the presence of unwieldy numbers), and in turn optimize their germane cognitive load (e.g., freeing students to focus on the key mathematical ideas). To examine students' perceptions on the adoption of the graphing calculator instructional approach a questionnaire was administered towards the end of the semester. The findings showed that the graphing calculator afforded students' learning in a variety of ways. Also considered is the challenge for educators to develop strategies that encourage appropriate use of graphing calculators in mathematics classroom in order to ensure that their integration is effective in instruction. Copyright © 2016, IGI Global. Source

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