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Lundstrom E.,University of Stockholm | Bjorlenius B.,Stockholm Water Company | Brinkmann M.,RWTH Aachen | Hollert H.,RWTH Aachen | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l-1, ozonation at 15 mg l-1, ozonation at 5 mg l-1 + moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation + hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Flyborg L.,Lund University | Bjorlenius B.,Lund University | Persson K.M.,Stockholm Water Company
Water Science and Technology

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and ozonation for indirect potable reuse in terms of pharmaceutical residuals. To simultaneously obtain a reasonable retentate volume for further treatment, the tests were performed at a high volume reduction factor (VRF) of 60. The feed to the pilot plant was the effluent from a BNR plant with a final process step of chemical precipitation and rapid sand filtration. Two tests were performed 1) nanofiltration of treated wastewater followed by ozonation and 2) ozonated treated wastewater as feed to NF. Of the 95 pharmaceuticals analysed, three were not removed to the quantification limit, oxazepam in the first test and glibenclamide and ketoprofen in the second. The water quality after the two processes was similar, with an overall removal of pharmaceutical residuals of 99%. There are two advantages of ozonated water as feed to NF - a higher specific flux of 35% and a potential removal of ozonation by-products. The retention of some pharmaceuticals by NF was lower than anticipated, the major removal occurring in the ozonation. A tighter NF or RO is required in order to achieve higher pharmaceutical retention for further treatment of the retentate. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Minten J.,University of Stockholm | Adolfsson-Erici M.,University of Stockholm | Bjorlenius B.,Stockholm Water Company | Alsberg T.,University of Stockholm
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

A method for the analysis of the artificial sweetener sucralose in sewage water and recipient water was developed. Extraction and clean up was performed with solid-phase extraction utilising Oasis HLB columns. Detection was made by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. However, 'pseudo MRM' was used, a technique where the two quadrupoles monitor the same m/z. The sodium adduct of sucralose was used for quantification, since lower detection limits were obtained as compared to the sucralose quasi-molecular ion in negative ion mode. The two ions with highest intensity in the chlorine isotope pattern were monitored. The reduction of matrix effects with this approach is discussed. The method limit of quantification (MLOQ) for sewage water was 0.2 μgL -1, whereas for recipient water MLOQ was 0.02 μgL -1. The method was used to analyse effluent samples from an experimental sewage treatment plant (STP) to assess the efficiency of tertiary treatment techniques for removal of sucralose. Filtration through activated carbon was shown to be efficient, while ozonation, advanced oxidation techniques and membrane bioreactors were less efficient. Analyses of receiving waters showed low dilution of sucralose emitted from the STPs. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Lundstrom E.,University of Stockholm | Adolfsson-Erici M.,University of Stockholm | Alsberg T.,University of Stockholm | Bjorlenius B.,Stockholm Water Company | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety

In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjöstad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term (≤7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations (<50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Cuklev F.,Gothenburg University | Gunnarsson L.,Gothenburg University | Cvijovic M.,Gothenburg University | Cvijovic M.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15. mg/L), 5. mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15. mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70. kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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