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Falkenmark M.,University of Stockholm | Falkenmark M.,Stockholm International Water Institute
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2017

This article addresses the need to profoundly expand the way we think about freshwater. Stressing water’s role as the bloodstream of the biosphere, the article highlights water’s functions in sustaining life on the planet (control, state and moisture feedback functions), the role of water partitioning changes in inducing non-linear change at multiple scales, and humanity’s influence on a social-ecological system’s capacity to adapt and continue to function. It reviews water’s roles during its journey through the upper layers of the land mass, different types of water–ecosystem interactions, and water’s roles in landscape-scale resilience building. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Sommer M.,Columbia University | Kjellen M.,Stockholm Environment Institute | Pensulo C.,Stockholm International Water Institute
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2013

While the sanitation sector is gaining increased recognition in policy and research, its inherent interlinkage with menstrual hygiene management remains an under-researched subject. This review explores knowledge about menstrual beliefs and behaviors, and how women and girls currently handle their monthly menses in relation to existing sanitation systems in low-income countries. It further explores how used menstrual materials are disposed of, and the consequences of different disposal practices for the functioning of sanitation systems. Conclusions point towards the inadequacy of research in the area of menstrual management. The lack of privacy and space for changing, cleaning, drying or discarding materials, as well as insufficient availability of water for personal hygiene stand out as important areas where sanitation systems often fail to cater to the needs of menstruating girls and women. Information on proper disposal of menstrual materials as well as the actual provision of disposal facilities are important for improving menstrual management and ensuring that absorption materials do not impair the functioning of sanitation systems. Training of sanitation system designers and planners with regard to menstrual management could lead to sanitation systems becoming more inclusive of the full needs of all people. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Rockstrom J.,University of Stockholm | Falkenmark M.,University of Stockholm | Falkenmark M.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Lannerstad M.,Stockholm Environment Institute | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

This paper analyses the potential conflict between resilience of the Earth system and global freshwater requirements for the dual task of carbon sequestration to reduce CO 2 in the atmosphere, and food production to feed humanity by 2050. It makes an attempt to assess the order of magnitude of the increased consumptive water use involved and analyses the implications as seen from two parallel perspectives; the global perspective of human development within a "safe operating space" with regard to the definition of the Planetary Boundary for freshwater; and the social-ecological implications at the regional river basin scale in terms of sharpening water shortages and threats to aquatic ecosystems. The paper shows that the consumptive water use involved in the dual task would both transgress the proposed planetary boundary range for global consumptive freshwater use and would further exacerbate already severe river depletion, causing societal problems related to water shortage and water allocation. Thus, strategies to rely on sequestration of CO 2 as a mitigation strategy must recognize the high freshwater costs involved, implying that the key climate mitigation strategy must be to reduce emissions. The paper finally highlights the need to analyze both water and carbon tradeoffs from anticipated large scale biofuel production climate change mitigation strategy, to reveal gains and impact of this in contrast to carbon sequestration strategies. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


News Article | November 24, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

Innovation can play a massive role in increasing consumer demand for sanitation systems, but we believe it can go beyond the toilet itself. We are nearing a tipping point between advances in health and technology, and the toilet is an invaluable tool in this. Health sensors, fertilisers, biogas – unlocking these business models can change the face of sanitation and the way we think about “doing our business”. I think we’re about to see what has happened with telephones over the last two decades happen with toilets. Alexandra Knezovich, programme manager, Toilet Board Coalition, @swissmrsk The Sanitation Challenge is a competition for local authorities in Ghana. It was launched in November 2015 and we are in the second stage of the programme. The competition is leading to a shift in the priorities of the government, making sanitation more visible and important. Local authorities are excited about having the opportunity to decide what they think is needed in their area. An innovation prize that can be broadly defined as “a financial incentive that induces change through competition” is bringing changes at political level, as well as incentivising local authorities to identify new service delivery methods. Veronica Di Bella, senior consultant, IMC Worldwide Mobile phones have made paying for services easier, with lower transaction costs. Small payment amounts make pay-per-use more affordable for low-income populations as well. It is only one small piece in the puzzle, but it has opened up many opportunities. Christian Zurbrugg, senior researcher, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Private entrepreneurs have to be encouraged to use unique business models which make toilet services an experience to remember, and a routine that attracts people to use them. For example, access to our toilets is free and they have all the basic facilities – sufficient lighting, ventilation, wash basins, soap dispensers – and we use stainless steel so the blocks are shiny. We also create the toilet blocks to be a hyper-local marketplace – users can recharge their mobile phones. Just think of the incentives that would be created if people had access to a free Wi-Fi hotspot at a public toilet. Mayank Midha, managing partner, GARV Toilets, @mayankmidha It is critical that people accept the water and sanitation solutions that are installed. Even in Europe, there is great resistance to the idea of using faecal sludge on agricultural land. Involving communities in the design and choice of technology is key to ensuring that the result is what users want. One great example is from Paraguay, where communities helped to select the technology and the design of the facilities to ensure they met their values. This is a long process and requires investment in the construction and participatory processes, but considering the current low sustainability rates of many Wash [water, sanitation and hygiene] investments, it will pay off in the long term. Moa Cortobius, programme officer and gender specialist, Stockholm International Water Institute If we want to promote sanitation as a sustainable utility service, it is important to come up with more standards for technologies and services. The International Organization for Standardization is developing a new standard for non-sewer sanitation systems that kill pathogens. The standard provides guidelines for the industry to develop new technologies, and can help countries shape their policies and promote the best systems. Doulaye Kone, deputy director – water, sanitation and hygiene, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Innovation can be done in different ways but it should be focused on the key audience for the right reasons and for the right end value-add. This might be around working on aid effectiveness, scaling action in supply chains, focusing on marginalised communities, hygiene behaviour, water stewardship, capacity building or working with the private sector – a whole number of things. It can take longer but buy-in is greater in the end. Isabelle Herszenhorn, innovation and strategic engagement lead, WaterAid, @izzy_hersz We need to have a cultural attitude that supports innovation. This also means that we have to accept failures when new techniques don’t live up to expectations and share these lessons. This should not be an excuse for ill-considered experimentation, however, as the stakes are high. Brian Reed, Water, Engineering and Development Centre Join our community of development professionals and humanitarians. Follow @GuardianGDP on Twitter, and have your say on issues around water in development using #H2Oideas.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.theguardian.com

Innovation is often cited as an enabler of sustainable development. Donors, NGOs and governments support new initiatives and technologies to reach the millions who lack access to water and sanitation, and a number of prizes and challenges encourage entrepreneurs to develop solutions to the same problems. But does the water, sanitation and hygiene sector (Wash) need such innovation? “There isn’t much that needs improvement about having a tap connected to mains water and using a toilet that flushes into a sewer,” says Remi Kaupp, urban sanitation specialist at WaterAid. “The main ingredients needed to achieve universal water and sanitation coverage are well known, and they are not glamourous.” The problem, it seems, is equating innovation and invention. “I think the technologies [we need] exist today,” says Jayanthi Iyengar of Xylem. “What we need is innovation around how we speed up their implementation, and how we unlock financial opportunities for local communities or countries.” Indeed, new approaches to financing access to water and sanitation, such as levies and development impact bonds, are gaining traction as solutions in the sector. So where is innovation needed most? What are the interesting inventions that work? How can obstacles to innovation be addressed? And how can we ensure that any new initiatives are meaningful and do not cover the same ground as others? Join an expert panel on Thursday 17 November, from 3pm to 4.30pm GMT, to discuss these questions and more. The live chat is not video or audio-enabled but will take place in the comments section (below). Want to recommend someone for the panel or ask a question in advance? Get in touch via globaldevpros@theguardian.com or @GuardianGDP on Twitter. Follow the discussion using the hashtag #globaldevlive. Mayank Midha, managing partner, GARV Toilets, Faridabad, India, @mayankmidha Mayank is an engineer and rural marketing professional, interested in developing products for bottom-of-the-pyramid markets. Veronica Di Bella, senior consultant, IMC Worldwide, London, UK Veronica is a water and sanitation specialist and the team leader of the DfID-funded Sanitation Challenge for Ghana. Alexandra Knezovich, programme manager, Toilet Board Coalition, Geneva, Switzerland, @swissmrsk Alexandra’s work at the Toilet Board Coalition focuses on communication, strategy and development. Christian Zurbrugg, senior researcher, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Zurich, Switzerland Christian is a senior researcher on solid waste and sanitation for low- and- middle income settings. Moa Cortobius, programme officer and gender specialist, Stockholm International Water Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Moa is a specialist on equity issues in water governance and integrity, focusing on gender equality and indigenous peoples. Doulaye Kone, deputy director – water, sanitation and hygiene, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, US Doulaye has led the foundation’s transformative technology sanitation portfolio for the past six years. Isabelle Herszenhorn, innovation and strategic engagement lead, WaterAid, Birmingham, UK, @izzy_hersz Isabelle has held a variety of roles since joining WaterAid in 2008 and is passionate about innovation – done right. Louise Kirby-Garton, CEO, Sanitation First, Bath, UK Louise a self-confessed eco-san warrior. Her most overused phrase is: “We need to talk about toilets.”


Farizo B.A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP | Joyce J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA
Land Economics | Year: 2014

One of the main issues on the research agenda regarding stated preference methods concerns the heterogeneity of preferences either within or between individuals. We present a multilevel mixed model (MMM) to capture heterogeneity in deterministic utility components, instead of simply leaving them to random components. MMM captures heterogeneity at different levels: individuals, locations, and groups of individuals sharing other characteristics. The results show that individuals' surroundings help to capture heterogeneity, and that can be controlled by specifying these aspects as predictors for this behavioral model. Therefore, MMM may contribute to the identification of the underlying structure affecting environmental decisions. (JEL D62, Q51). © 2014 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.


Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA | Joyce J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Farizo A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2013

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a far-reaching piece of European Community legislation. Estimates of the benefits of WFD Programs are needed at the present time for two reasons. First, the WFD itself allows for derogations from the general requirement of member states to reach good ecological status in all water bodies by 2015 in cases where the costs of doing so can be shown to be disproportionate. This paper presents a contingent valuation survey for the valuation and desirability of improvements regarding the WFD in England and Wales. According to our behavioral models, positive welfare changes constitute a sound argument in favor of the development of programs developed to increase the water quality. Moreover, the paper tests how the 'departure' endowments influence the willingness to pay for water quality improvements. In this sense, scope test and diminishing marginal value hypothesis are examined. The average willingness to pay appears to be insensitive to the water improvement intensity and a scope bias could be affecting our results. Nevertheless, it is shown a marginal decreasing value for water quality improvements and that the environmental program leads to different wellbeing intensity attending to local endowments.


Jagerskog A.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Kim K.,Uppsala University
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2016

In recent years there has been a surge in land investments, primarily in the African continent, but also in Asia and Latin America. This increase in land investment was driven by the food pricing crisis of 2007–2008. Land investors can be identified from a variety of sectors, with actors ranging from hedge funds to national companies. Many water-scarce countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are among these financiers, and primarily invest in Africa. Recognizing the potential for “outsourcing” their food security (and thereby also partly their water security), Middle Eastern countries such as Jordan, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have invested in land for food production in Africa. The extent to which this is happening is still unclear, as many contracts are not yet official and the extent of the leases is vague. This paper investigates the land investments and acquisitions by Middle Eastern countries. It also seeks to analyse what effect, if any, these investments can have on the potential for conflict reduction and subsequent peacebuilding in the Middle East region as the activity removes pressure from transboundary water resources. © 2016 IAHS


Lundqvist J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Falkenmark M.,Stockholm International Water Institute
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2010

The variability and unpredictability of rainfall is a neglected but most hazardous dimension of climate and water resources and a tangible development predicament. Describing and analysing the world and its water resources in terms of statistical averages and trends is natural and necessary, for example, as an input in planning and policy. But the very complex and dynamic reality must be duly recognized. Policies must include a range of approaches and the political will and skill needed to balance attention to 'privileged problems' and to problems that have been 'neglected'. This entails a widening of the water resource perception to include the various fractions of rainfall. An improved efficiency of the rains would translate into the notion of 'more crop per rain drop'. A coordinated and flexible management of the physical and biological resources of a landscape and a capitalizing on the abilities of people, communities and governing bodies and agencies is required to deal with the complexity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Jimenez A.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Cortobius M.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Kjellen M.,Stockholm International Water Institute
Water International | Year: 2014

The levels of sanitation and water services coverage as well as health attainment are low among indigenous peoples. This exclusion from basic service has not been sufficiently studied. The present review has analyzed 185 articles dealing with indigenous peoples and the water, sanitation and hygiene complex. The literature is dramatically skewed towards water resources, and overwhelmingly focused on conflicts, at the expense of basic sanitation and hygiene. More initiatives towards the acknowledgement of indigenous peoples' world-views and institutions in all aspects of the water management cycle are needed. To this end, the development of effective intercultural dialogue mechanisms is crucial. © 2014 © 2014 International Water Resources Association.

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