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Farizo B.A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP | Joyce J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA
Land Economics | Year: 2014

One of the main issues on the research agenda regarding stated preference methods concerns the heterogeneity of preferences either within or between individuals. We present a multilevel mixed model (MMM) to capture heterogeneity in deterministic utility components, instead of simply leaving them to random components. MMM captures heterogeneity at different levels: individuals, locations, and groups of individuals sharing other characteristics. The results show that individuals' surroundings help to capture heterogeneity, and that can be controlled by specifying these aspects as predictors for this behavioral model. Therefore, MMM may contribute to the identification of the underlying structure affecting environmental decisions. (JEL D62, Q51). © 2014 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

Jagerskog A.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Kim K.,Uppsala University
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2016

In recent years there has been a surge in land investments, primarily in the African continent, but also in Asia and Latin America. This increase in land investment was driven by the food pricing crisis of 2007–2008. Land investors can be identified from a variety of sectors, with actors ranging from hedge funds to national companies. Many water-scarce countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are among these financiers, and primarily invest in Africa. Recognizing the potential for “outsourcing” their food security (and thereby also partly their water security), Middle Eastern countries such as Jordan, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have invested in land for food production in Africa. The extent to which this is happening is still unclear, as many contracts are not yet official and the extent of the leases is vague. This paper investigates the land investments and acquisitions by Middle Eastern countries. It also seeks to analyse what effect, if any, these investments can have on the potential for conflict reduction and subsequent peacebuilding in the Middle East region as the activity removes pressure from transboundary water resources. © 2016 IAHS

Sommer M.,Columbia University | Kjellen M.,Stockholm Environment Institute | Pensulo C.,Stockholm International Water Institute
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development | Year: 2013

While the sanitation sector is gaining increased recognition in policy and research, its inherent interlinkage with menstrual hygiene management remains an under-researched subject. This review explores knowledge about menstrual beliefs and behaviors, and how women and girls currently handle their monthly menses in relation to existing sanitation systems in low-income countries. It further explores how used menstrual materials are disposed of, and the consequences of different disposal practices for the functioning of sanitation systems. Conclusions point towards the inadequacy of research in the area of menstrual management. The lack of privacy and space for changing, cleaning, drying or discarding materials, as well as insufficient availability of water for personal hygiene stand out as important areas where sanitation systems often fail to cater to the needs of menstruating girls and women. Information on proper disposal of menstrual materials as well as the actual provision of disposal facilities are important for improving menstrual management and ensuring that absorption materials do not impair the functioning of sanitation systems. Training of sanitation system designers and planners with regard to menstrual management could lead to sanitation systems becoming more inclusive of the full needs of all people. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Solino M.,National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology INIA | Joyce J.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Farizo A.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2013

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a far-reaching piece of European Community legislation. Estimates of the benefits of WFD Programs are needed at the present time for two reasons. First, the WFD itself allows for derogations from the general requirement of member states to reach good ecological status in all water bodies by 2015 in cases where the costs of doing so can be shown to be disproportionate. This paper presents a contingent valuation survey for the valuation and desirability of improvements regarding the WFD in England and Wales. According to our behavioral models, positive welfare changes constitute a sound argument in favor of the development of programs developed to increase the water quality. Moreover, the paper tests how the 'departure' endowments influence the willingness to pay for water quality improvements. In this sense, scope test and diminishing marginal value hypothesis are examined. The average willingness to pay appears to be insensitive to the water improvement intensity and a scope bias could be affecting our results. Nevertheless, it is shown a marginal decreasing value for water quality improvements and that the environmental program leads to different wellbeing intensity attending to local endowments.

Rockstrom J.,University of Stockholm | Falkenmark M.,University of Stockholm | Falkenmark M.,Stockholm International Water Institute | Lannerstad M.,Stockholm Environment Institute | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

This paper analyses the potential conflict between resilience of the Earth system and global freshwater requirements for the dual task of carbon sequestration to reduce CO 2 in the atmosphere, and food production to feed humanity by 2050. It makes an attempt to assess the order of magnitude of the increased consumptive water use involved and analyses the implications as seen from two parallel perspectives; the global perspective of human development within a "safe operating space" with regard to the definition of the Planetary Boundary for freshwater; and the social-ecological implications at the regional river basin scale in terms of sharpening water shortages and threats to aquatic ecosystems. The paper shows that the consumptive water use involved in the dual task would both transgress the proposed planetary boundary range for global consumptive freshwater use and would further exacerbate already severe river depletion, causing societal problems related to water shortage and water allocation. Thus, strategies to rely on sequestration of CO 2 as a mitigation strategy must recognize the high freshwater costs involved, implying that the key climate mitigation strategy must be to reduce emissions. The paper finally highlights the need to analyze both water and carbon tradeoffs from anticipated large scale biofuel production climate change mitigation strategy, to reveal gains and impact of this in contrast to carbon sequestration strategies. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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