Stanton E.A.,Stockholm Environment Institute
Climatic Change | Year: 2011
In a global climate policy debate fraught with differing understandings of right and wrong, the importance of making transparent the ethical assumptions used in climate-economics models cannot be overestimated. Negishi weighting is a key ethical assumption in climate-economics models, but it is virtually unknown to most model users. Negishi weights freeze the current distribution of income between world regions; without this constraint, IAMs that maximize global welfare would recommend an equalization of income across regions as part of their policy advice. With Negishi weights in place, these models instead recommend a course of action that would be optimal only in a world in which global income redistribution cannot and will not take place. This article describes the Negishi procedure and its origin in theoretical and applied welfare economics, and discusses the policy implications of the presentation and use of Negishi-weighted model results, as well as some alternatives to Negishi weighting in climate-economics models. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source
Roman M.,Stockholm Environment Institute
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011
The ambition to introduce carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in developing countries raises particular considerations and challenges, where, most fundamentally, pressing socio-economic needs imply that there are other political priorities than GHG mitigation. This suggests that the interest in, and viability of, large-scale deployment of CCS in developing countries has to be analyzed as a strategic issue in the overall context of national development. But what are then the strategic concerns that may influence developing countries' decisions to pursue large-scale deployment of CCS technology? The present article takes a first step in answering this question by comparing CCS policies and ongoing activities in Brazil, India and South Africa. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Li Y.,Stockholm Environment Institute
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2012
Working within the context of enlarged urban-rural inequalities in China, this paper aims to identify different urban-rural interaction patterns and to propose specific ways of achieving urban-rural integration with respect to those different patterns. The paper establishes a strong connection between resource flows and environmental change. An urban-rural interaction index is put forward, based upon the division of the counties and urban districts of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region into three groups. The "high urban agglomeration" group includes those urban districts and adjacent counties currently experiencing rapid socioeconomic growth. The "medium peri-urban agglomeration" group consists of counties surrounding areas in the first group, which have moderate population growth and moderate economic growth. The "low rural periphery agglomeration" group, located in the northern and western parts of the region, has slow socioeconomic growth. Within the "high urban agglomeration" group, the factors of arable land and built-up land have the highest rates of change, while in the third group, these factors have the lowest rate of change. Moderate rates of land-use change characterize the counties within the second group. Three specific ways of achieving urban-rural integration in the three urban-rural interaction patterns are proposed in accordance with the research findings. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.85M | Year: 2016
Achieving a sustainable development trajectory in Amazonia is one of the key challenges facing Brazil, and is also an important international concern. ODYSSEA assembles an internationally renowned European and Brazilian multidisciplinary and intersectoral team. We aim to produce fundamental science and tools in order to build an innovative multi-and interdisciplinary observatory to monitor and assess dynamic interactions between Amazon societies and their environments. This observatory will serve as a basis for policy development that integrates social, environmental, political-economic and human health dimensions. Our methodology puts the society at the heart of the observatorys building process, engaging stakeholders and decision makers in the research to favour advancement of their objectives and commitment to sustainable development issues. Building on knowledge framed around ongoing bilateral projects, ODYSSEA brings together several independent networks of international and Brazilian researchers which all have long-term experiences in the Amazon of environmental and social research, each with their own expert skill-sets. We expect significant advances in our understanding of the different feedbacks and linkages between the panoply of pressures exerted on the environment, the factors determining the vulnerability of local populations to environmental shocks and in the evaluation of governance and institutional arrangements aiming at promoting adaptation. We aim to enhance the capacity of Brazilian institutions to assess and reduce the vulnerability of populations in Amazonia. ODYSSEA will help unify an increasing number of bilateral arrangements for research and innovation between individual European countries and Brazil. Whilst these connections are proving fruitful in their own right there is a largely untapped opportunity to upscale the intensity and diversity of connections between Europe and Brazil on all levels of education, research and development.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: DRS-21-2014 | Award Amount: 1.74M | Year: 2015
EDUCEN is a coordination and support action that will work on the complex interplay between culture(s) and disaster risk reduction, above all in the context of cities, to allow in particular formal and informal emergency responders, risk managers, the military, urban planners and planners at regional and national level to be better equipped to deal with elements of culture, and as a result to ensure highly competent disaster responses and increasing community resilience. It is our contention that disaster risk reduction policies and practices are intrinsically cultural as they emerge from and are therefore largely shaped by the interplay of cultures prevalent at both the community, organisational and institutional level. Therefore any endeavour aimed at improving disaster risk reduction efforts should be founded on a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of this interplay and more importantly of the influential role of culture on the way people prepare for, experience, respond, and recover from disasters. EDUCEN will achieve its objectives this by firstly allowing knowledge and understanding of culture(s) in light of disaster risk reduction to become accessible to relevant stakeholders and secondly by encouraging, enabling and sustaining multi-stakeholder dialogue through which academics, practitioners and communities can actively engage and share knowledge, expertise and experiences which will enable all to strengthen their capabilities and impact, but most importantly will allow for both formal and informal risk managers and planners and spatial planners emergency responders in cities to be better informed and guided. The final product will be a multi-level, multi-media handbook, including visuals, maps, written narratives, and videos to support disaster risk reduction professionals to better appraise relevant cultural aspects in their own community of practice as well as in the environment where they intervene.