Stockholm Convention Unit

Vienna, Austria

Stockholm Convention Unit

Vienna, Austria

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Wang B.,University of Tokyo | Wang B.,Tsinghua University | Huang J.,Tsinghua University | Lu Y.,Tsinghua University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Endosulfan, a persistent organic pollutant newly listed under the Stockholm Convention, is currently widely produced and used as a pesticide in China. Concentrations of endosulfans (including a-, β- isomers, and their metabolite endosulfan sulfate) were determined in surface soil collected from Huai'an city, where the largest endosulfan producer is located. The concentrations of Sendosulfan (sum of a-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate) at all sites ranged from 0.28 to 44.81 ng/g dry weight (dw), following a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean was 1.09 ng/g dw, and the geometric standard deviation was 3.02. The β-endosulfan levels were consistently greater than those of a-isomer. The concentration ratios of a-endosulfan to β-endosulfan ranged from 0.03 to 0.70, which were much lower than the commercial endosulfan mixture. This is because that a-endosulfan is more volatile and degrades faster than β-endosulfan in soil. The contour map of Sendosulfan levels in soil indicates that the factory was the point pollution source with the highest endosulfan level in its surrounding area, especially the southern area. However, the non-point agricultural sources are more important. Based onMonte Carlo simulation, the Sendosulfan inventory in soil in Huai'an is estimated to be 0.8-3.0 tons. In order to understand the potential ecological risk of endosulfan, the Monte Carlo-based hazard quotient distribution was estimated and showed that Sendosulfan posed a potentially high risk to soil organisms. To our knowledge, this study is the first that reports soil pollution and risk of endosulfan around themanufacturer in China. This study will help China's implementation of Stockholm Convention for the reduction and elimination of endosulfan in future. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Pongpiachan S.,National Institute of Development Administration | Wiriwutikorn T.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | Rungruang C.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | Yodden K.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | And 4 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2016

Previous studies have raised public concerns regarding issues of adverse health impacts on human exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs. Industrial boilers have been criticized as one of the main contributors of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions. To minimize dioxin releases from unintentional production, a study on the best available techniques (BAT) and best environmental practices (BEP) was conducted using a micro-emulsion technology, which was developed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of industrial boilers. In this study, the performance of micro-emulsion technology on reducing PCDDs/PCDFs emissions from an industrial boiler using three types of fuels, 100% heavy fuel oil (100% HFO), 90% HFO coupled with 10% ethanol (90% HFO-10% ethanol), and 90% HFO coupled with 10% water (90% HFO-10% water), were carefully evaluated and statistically analyzed. The use of the ANOVA statistical method for the analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences associated with the trace gaseous concentrations (e.g., CO, NOx, and SO2) among the three types of fuels. Furthermore, an industrial boiler using 90% HFO-10% ethanol tends to show the minimum PCDDs/PCDFs emissions in comparison with other two types of fuels. In addition, significant reductions of TCDDs, PeCDDs, HxCDDs, HpCDDs, TCDFs, PeCDFs, and total PCDDs were observed in an industrial boiler using the combination of HFO and ethanol. Overall, micro-emulsion can be considered a promising clean technology in term of PCDDs/PCDFs reduction. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pongpiachan S.,National Institute of Development Administration | Wiriwutikorn T.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | Rungruang C.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | Yodden K.,Waste and Hazardous Substance Management Bureau | And 3 more authors.
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2013

It is well known that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are carcinogens and mutagens, which are mainly released from industrial sectors. Fossil fuel fired utilities and industrial boilers are considered as two main sources responsible for the emissions of dioxins. As a consequence, the regional project "Demonstration of BAT and BEP in the Fossil Fuel-fired Utilities and Industrial Boilers in response to the Stockholm Convention on POPs", officially approved for full implementation by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) in April 2010 in order to investigate the emissions of dioxins from various types of industrial sectors in ESEA (East and South East Asia) countries. This study aims to quantify the emissions of dioxins from industrial boilers at a whisky factory and vegetable oil factory in Samutsakorn Province, Thailand. © 2013 WIT Press.

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