Stockbridge Technology Center

Cawood, United Kingdom

Stockbridge Technology Center

Cawood, United Kingdom
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Pritchard J.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Kuster T.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | George D.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Sparagano O.,Coventry University | Tomley F.,Royal Veterinary College University of London
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2016

The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | East Malling Research, Warwick Crop Center, Rationale, Stockbridge Technology Center and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Insects | Year: 2015

To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative biopesticide and biorational products based on phytochemicals, microbials and physically-acting substances. The results suggest that certain biopesticide products, particularly botanicals, provide good levels of pest control, with the same being true of experimental conventional chemical pesticides not yet recommended for use against these pests on these crops. Efforts are on-going to ensure that results of the current project translate to industry benefit via new pesticide approvals.


George D.R.,Stockbridge Technology Center | George D.R.,Northumbria University | Banfield-Zanin J.A.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Collier R.,Warwick Crop Center | And 3 more authors.
Insects | Year: 2015

To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative biopesticide and biorational products based on phytochemicals, microbials and physically-acting substances. The results suggest that certain biopesticide products, particularly botanicals, provide good levels of pest control, with the same being true of experimental conventional chemical pesticides not yet recommended for use against these pests on these crops. Efforts are on-going to ensure that results of the current project translate to industry benefit via new pesticide approvals. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Mul M.F.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | van Riel J.W.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Meerburg B.G.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Dicke M.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2015

For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an “automated mite counter”) was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of ‘number of mites counted’ by the automated mite counter and the ‘number of mites present’ in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. © 2015, The Author(s).


Cuthbertson A.G.,UK Environment Agency | Mathers J.J.,UK Environment Agency | Croft P.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Nattriss N.,Stockbridge Technology Center | And 6 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, Typhlodromips montdorensis Schicha, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Iphiseius degenerans Berlese) were investigated for their potential to act as control agents for Thrips palmi Karny. Prey consumption rates and compatibility with pesticides were assessed. RESULTS: Second-instar larvae were the preferred life stage. Typhlodromips montdorensis consumed the most larvae (2.8) and also an average of 1.2 adult T. palmi per 5 day period. Both 24 and 48 h assessments following application of abamectin, spinosad and imazalil demonstrated mortality of predatory mites (across all species), which was significantly higher than with the other treatments (P < 0.001). Spraying with pymetrozine did not provide any increased mortality when compared with the water control. Application of thiacloprid proved detrimental only to I. degenerans. Following indirect exposure of predatory mites to pymetrozine and imazalil, no significant differences in mite mortality were obtained. Indirect exposure to spinosad was identified as the most detrimental treatment (P < 0.001) to all mites. Abamectin also proved detrimental, with only T. montdorensis showing any potential tolerance. CONCLUSION: All predatory mites investigated offer potential for controlling T. palmi. Compatibility with chemicals varied between the mites. The potential of incorporating the mites into eradication strategies for T. palmi is discussed. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.


Banfield-Zanin J.A.,Imperial College London | Banfield-Zanin J.A.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Leather S.R.,Harper Adams University College
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2015

Elatobium abietinum (Walker) is the most important defoliating pest of Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. Climate change in the U.K. is predicted to increase incidences of spring-summer drought events, with the aphid expected to respond to these changes. This will have serious implications for damage levels and growth of infested Sitka spruce, as well as control of the aphid pest. Under controlled laboratory conditions, nymphal survival rate, lifespan and generation time of E. abietinum were examined in time-staggered trials during the spring and autumn periods of population growth, using five levels of drought with differing frequencies and magnitude. Survivorship and lifespan were unaffected by drought stress compared with a well-watered control. Generation time, however, was increased under severe continuous and high amplitude intermittent drought stress. Advancement of Sitka spruce dormancy was not supported as no differences between the autumn trials were observed for the three parameters. The findings of the present study suggest that, under severe water deficit, populations of E. abietinum may be reduced as a result of a reduced period of time available for reproduction. This has implications for the population development of E. abietinum and, consequently, damage levels and growth reductions of host Sitka spruce under altered climatic conditions. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.


McDaniel T.,Northumbria University | Tosh C.R.,Northumbria University | Gatehouse A.M.R.,Northumbria University | George D.,Stockbridge Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

The glasshouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, is an important pest of many crop plants including tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Many wild tomato species exhibit a higher resistance to whiteflies. Therefore, locating the source of this enhanced resistance and breeding it into commercial tomato species is an important strategy to reduce the impact of pests on crops. Here, we assessed the pest resistance of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium by comparing oviposition and feeding data from T. vaporariorum on this wild tomato species with data collected from a susceptible commercial tomato, S. lycopersicum var. ‘Elegance’. The location of resistance factors was examined by use of electrical penetration graph (EPG) studies on these tomato species. Results show that whiteflies preferentially settled on the commercial tomato more often in 80 % of the replicates when given free choice between the two tomato species and laid significantly fewer eggs on L. pimpinellifolium. Whiteflies exhibited a shorter duration of the second feeding bout, reduced pathway phase probing, longer salivation in the phloem and more non-probing activities in the early stages of the EPG on the wild tomato species compared to the commercial tomato. These findings evidence that a dual mode of resistance is present in this wild tomato against T. vaporariorum: a post-penetration, pre-phloem resistance mechanism and a phloem-located factor, which to the best of our knowledge is the first time that evidence for this has been presented. These findings can be used to inform future breeding strategies to increase the resistance of commercial tomato varieties against this important pest. © 2016, The Author(s).


Mul M.F.,Wageningen Livestock Research | Ploegaert J.P.M.,Wageningen Livestock Research | George D.R.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Meerburg B.G.,Wageningen Livestock Research | And 3 more authors.
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2016

Pests and diseases in agricultural systems cause severe production losses with associated economic impact. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable method to limit these losses. For improved implementation of IPM, fully automated monitoring tools are needed to provide instantaneous pest monitoring data and associated real time, user-friendly treatment advice for producers. The application of the Reflexive Interactive Design approach to design an automated pest monitoring tool including an automated pest detection sensor is described with Poultry Red Mite (PRM) as a model target. Three different concepts were designed for the automated mite detection sensor based on a combination of solutions to carry out the key functions. The functioning of the main solutions in the three concepts was tested with live mites to ensure that solutions aligned with the behaviour and biology of PRM in vivo. The best solutions were combined into two different prototypes, which were subsequently tested in the laboratory and on-farm. The most successful prototype of the automated mite detection sensor was situated under the bird's perch, had a through-beam sensor and was able to remove mites from the through-beam sensor area once recorded. Involvement of various multidisciplinary actors, users and varied user networks in the design process was vital for its rapid progress, the quality of the final product and the limited number of set-backs encountered. It is expected that this same design structure, with the addition of an evaluation step, is applicable to the design of automated monitoring tools for other pest species. © 2016 IAgrE


Muir C.D.,Indiana University Bloomington | Muir C.D.,University of British Columbia | Muir C.D.,Stockbridge Technology Center | Hangarter R.P.,Indiana University Bloomington | And 2 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Natural selection on photosynthetic performance is a primary factor determining leaf phenotypes. The complex CO2 diffusion path from substomatal cavities to the chloroplasts - the mesophyll conductance (gm) - limits photosynthetic rate in many species and hence shapes variation in leaf morphology and anatomy. Among sclerophyllous and succulent taxa, structural investment in leaves, measured as the leaf dry mass per area (LMA), has been implicated in decreased gm. However, in herbaceous taxa with high gm, it is less certain how LMA impacts CO2 diffusion and whether it significantly affects photosynthetic performance. We addressed these questions in the context of understanding the ecophysiological significance of leaf trait variation in wild tomatoes, a closely related group of herbaceous perennials. Although gm was high in wild tomatoes, variation in gm significantly affected photosynthesis. Even in these tender-leaved herbaceous species, greater LMA led to reduced gm. This relationship between gm and LMA is partially mediated by cell packing and leaf thickness, although amphistomy (equal distribution of stomata on both sides of the leaf) mitigates the effect of leaf thickness. Understanding the costs of increased LMA will inform future work on the adaptive significance of leaf trait variation across ecological gradients in wild tomatoes and other systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


George D.R.,Lancaster University | George D.R.,Northumbria University | King L.,Lancaster University | Donkin E.,University of York | And 3 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that floral visitation and foraging by the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus De Geer would have no effect on the attraction to, or use of, flowers by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi Haliday. Results demonstrated that in two-way choice tests, air-streams emanating from live Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) flowers were significantly more attractive than clean air to both male and female wasps, by more than one and two orders of magnitude, respectively. When air-streams from flowers presented alone were compared to those from flowers presented with E. balteatus, or exposed to E. balteatus prior to use, no preferences were detected. Nevertheless, air that had passed through chambers containing only live E. balteatus was significantly repellent to female wasps, with individuals spending 18 times less in these air-streams than clean air. Conversely, air passed over E. balteatus was attractive to male A. ervi, with wasps spending more than six times longer in this vs. clean air. We argue that hoverfly floral visitation/use should have minimal impact on floral attractiveness to A. ervi based on these results, and that for male wasps greater benefits might be gained by responding positively to hoverfly volatiles in the absence of floral cues.In a separate experiment, a consistent trend for reduced fitness of female A. ervi on caged F. esculentum was observed under increasing competitive pressure from E. balteatus. High densities of hoverflies significantly reduced wasp longevity by more than 25%, though lower densities had no significant effect. Conversely, male A. ervi appeared to survive for longer where higher densities of hoverflies were present, though results were not as clear-cut statistically. We argue that antagonistic interactions seen between hoverflies and female A. ervi were the result of behavioural interference and would only be observed in the field under conditions of extreme competitive pressure. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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