stitute of Shanghai Universities

Shanghai, China

stitute of Shanghai Universities

Shanghai, China
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Xia J.H.,National University of Singapore | Liu F.,Shanghai Ocean University | Zhu Z.Y.,National University of Singapore | Fu J.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes.Results: We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish.Conclusions: The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project. © 2010 Xia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiong X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

Gluconeogenesis is critical in maintaining blood glucose levels in a normal range during fasting. In this study, we investigated the role of Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a key transcription factor involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our data showed that hepatic YY1 expression levels were induced in mice during fasting conditions and in a state of insulin resistance. Overexpression of YY1 in livers augmented gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels in C57BL/6 mice, whereas liver-specific ablation of YY1 using adenoviral shRNA ameliorated hyperglycemia in wild-type and diabetic db/db mice. At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that the major mechanism of YY1 in the regulation of hepatic glucose production is to modulate the expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Therefore, our study uncovered for the first time that YY1 participates in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which implies that YY1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Jiao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li X.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li X.-Y.,stitute of Shanghai Universities
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2015

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes in the absence of significant alcohol consumption, viral infection or other specific causes of liver disease. NAFLD has become a burgeoning health problem both worldwide and in China, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be the primary sensor for endogenous bile acids, and play a crucial role in hepatic triglyceride homeostasis. Deciphering the synergistic contributions of FXR to triglyceride metabolism is critical for discovering therapeutic agents in the treatment of NAFLD and hypertriglyceridemia. © 2015 CPS and SIMM.

Xiong X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang E.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increased with aging. However, the molecular mechanism for aging-induced fatty liver remains poorly understood. Methods Hepatic TG contents and gene expression profiles were analyzed in body weight-matched young (2 months), middle (8 months) and old (18 months) C57BL/6 mice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expression were examined. The mechanism of ER stress activation in the regulation of FXR expression was further investigated. Results In the present study, we found that TG was markedly accumulated and lipogenic genes were up-regulated in the liver of C57BL/6 mice aged 18 months. FXR, a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism was down-regulated in these old mice. At molecular levels, ER stress was activated in old mice and repressed FXR expression through inhibition of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α) transcriptional activity. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that FXR down-regulation plays a critical role in aging-induced fatty liver. © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published.

Wang T.,Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of Ministry of Health | Wang T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang T.,stitute of Shanghai Universities | Ning G.,Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of Ministry of Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes | Year: 2013

Diabetes and cancer are both heterogeneous and multifactorial diseases with tremendous impact on health worldwide. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that certain malignancies may be associated with diabetes, as well as with diabetes risk factors and, perhaps, with certain diabetes treatments. Numerous biological mechanisms could account for these relationships. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, IGF-1 receptors, insulin, and the insulin receptor play roles in the development and progression of cancers. Although evidence from randomized controlled trials does not support or refute associations of diabetes and its treatments with either increased or reduced risk of cancer incidence or prognosis, consideration of malignancy incidence rates and the magnitude of the trials that would be required to address these issues explains why such studies may not be readily undertaken. © 2013 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Lu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ma Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiong X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 8 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014

Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterised by accumulation of excessive triglycerides in the liver. Obesity is usually associated with NAFLD through an unknown mechanism. Objective To investigate the roles of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in the progression of obesity-associated hepatosteatosis. Methods Expression levels of hepatic YY1 were identified by microarray analysis in high-fat-diet (HFD)- induced obese mice. Liver triglyceride metabolism was analysed in mice with YY1 overexpression and suppression. Results YY1 expression was markedly upregulated in HFD-induced obese mice and NAFLD patients. Overexpression of YY1 in healthy mice promoted hepatosteatosis under high-fat dietary conditions, whereas liver-specific ablation of YY1 using adenoviral shRNA ameliorated triglyceride accumulation in obese mice. At the molecular level, YY1 suppressed farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expression through binding to the YY1 responsive element at intron 1 of the FXR gene. Conclusions These findings indicate that YY1 plays a crucial role in obesity-associated hepatosteatosis, through repression of FXR expression.

Huang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gu W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: Low-grade albuminuria was reported to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Our present study showed a significant association between low-grade urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and elevated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between low-grade albuminuria and CIMT in type 2 diabetic patients. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measures: A cross-sectional study was performed in 760 type 2 diabetic patients (age range, 29-76 yr) with normoalbuminuria from Shanghai, China. A first-voided early morning spot urine sample was obtained for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements. CIMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Results: CIMT, as well as body mass index, glycated hemoglobin A1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum triglycerides, progressively increased across the sex-specific quartiles of ACR (all P < 0.05). Compared with the patients in the lowest quartile, those in the third and the highest quartiles had significantly higher levels of CIMT (0.87 and 0.91 vs. 0.79 mm, P = 0.0025 and <0.0001, respectively). A fully adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the patients in the lowest quartile of ACR, those in the third and the highest quartiles had 1.98- to 2.76-fold increased risk of elevated CIMT. Conclusions: In type 2 diabetic patients, slightly elevated ACR level, which was below the current cutoff point of microalbuminuria, was associated with higher CIMT after adjustments of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The results implied that low-grade albuminuria might be an early marker for the detection of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

Li L.,The First Affiliated Hospital | Chen G.-P.,The First Affiliated Hospital | Yang Y.,The First Affiliated Hospital | Ye Y.,The First Affiliated Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), an essential enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, was reported to be upregulated in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) when compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, and this was accompanied by development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Five-week-old rats were daily gavaged with vehicle or an FPPS inhibitor (alendronate, 1 or 10 mg/kg) and blood pressures was monitored by the tail-cuff method every other week. Twelve weeks of alendronate treatment attenuated the left ventricular weight to body weight ratio (LVW/BW), hydroxyproline content, collagen deposition in the interstitia, and gene expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and procollagen type I/III in the SHR left ventricle, all of which were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Furthermore, long-term treatment with an FPPS inhibitor significantly reduced RhoA activation, ERK phosphorylation, and TGF-β1 expression in the SHR left ventricle, all of which were upregulated more in SHRs than in WKY rats. In conclusion, chronic treatment with an FPPS inhibitor attenuates the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and the suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and TGF-β1 expression with inhibition of RhoA activation may be an important mechanism. © 2009.

Liu L.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liu C.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li J.,stitute of Shanghai Universities
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superb) is a species of krill (shrimp-like crustaceans) found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. It is the most abundant species of krill, which catchable stock is believed to amount up to 10 million tons per year, and may be the most potential marine resource for utilization as food in the world. This paper compared the nutritional components and heavy metals of edible portions of Antarctic krill, greasy-back shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis), Chinese white prawn (Exopalaemon modestus), and oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense). Antarctic krill meat contained 76.39% of water, 17.22% of crude proteins, 2.66% of crude lipids, and 1.43% of ashes, respectively. At dry basis, Antarctic krill had relatively lower content of crude protein (72.92%) than oriental river prawn (85.35%), greasy-back shrimp (81.12%), or Chinese white prawn (78.18%). However, it had significantly higher lipid content (11.25%) than the three species of shrimps (4.89%∼6.65%). And the total amino acids in dry samples of Antarctic krill meat was 74.46g/100g, which was lower than the shrimps, but the essential amino acid content (45.90g/100g protein) was higher than others. Regarding to minerals, no significant difference was found in Antarctic krill and the shrimps, with exceptions that Antarctic krill contained two to three times higher content of magnesium (458.28mg/100g) and copper (4.96mg/100g) than shrimps. In addition, the heavy metals including lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) in Antarctic krill meat met the limit standard of contaminants in aquatic products. But fluorine content of Antarctic krill meat surpassed the safety limit (2.0mg/kg) and might be a safety concern. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Xue Y.-L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Shi H.-X.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Murad F.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Murad F.,stitute of Shanghai Universities | And 2 more authors.
Vascular Health and Risk Management | Year: 2011

The vasodilatory effect of cinnamaldehyde was investigated for its mechanism of action using isolated rings of rat aorta. Cinnamaldehyde relaxed aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner, was not affected by either the presence or removal of the endothelium. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole- [4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one could not block vasodilation by cinnamaldehyde, indicating that nitric oxide signaling is not involved. Potassium channel blockers, such as glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, and BaCl2, had no effect on the relaxation produced by cinnamaldehyde. In addition, treatment with either indomethacin or propranolol did not affect cinnamaldehyde- induced vasodilatation. On the other hand, pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with cinnamaldehyde significantly inhibited vasoconstriction induced by endogenous vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin II, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, endothelin-1, and phenylephrine. In a Ca2+-free experimental setting, this natural vasodilator not only blocked Ca2+ influx-dependent vasoconstriction by either phenylephrine or KCl, but also inhibited phenylephrine-induced tonic contraction, which relies on intracellular Ca2+ release. This study shows that endotheliumindependent, Ca2+ influx and/or an inhibitory release mechanism contributes to the vasodilatory effect of cinnamaldehyde. © 2011 Xue et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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