Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover

Hannover, Germany

Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover

Hannover, Germany
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The current situation with respect to the incidence of disease of dairy cows is unfortunately often not satisfactory from the standpoint of agricultural enterprises. More rapid breeding gains in milk yield at current levels are likely to exacerbate the known health problems, so that a reduction of selection pressure on the milk production in favour of important health and fitness traits, especially for large dairy herds, in the present paper is proposed. In the future, the new federal states (= former East German States) could play a real leading role due to the high proportion of large farms. In full grazing systems of dairy cows an optimum utilization of pasture fodder is sought; with limited feeding of concentrates. For these grassland-based milk production with seasonal calving in turn recommends a separate bull selection, notably on the body mass and fertility in their (future) daughters. The definition of a unified breeding goal (with a special focus on the further improvement of milk yield) in German Holsteins is no longer appropriate, because German Holstein cattle must be kept in very different production systems. A rethink is urgently needed already in the breeding goal formulation.


Wenning. P.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Grunberg W.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2015

Periparturient hypocalcaemia remains one the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. While the incidence of clinical milk fever is in the range of 5%, approximately 40% of periparturient dairy cattle are estimated to become subclinically hypocalcaemic. Although farmers and veterinarians perceive clinical cases of milk fever as the primary concern, it is subclinical hypocalceamia that is economically most relevant as it is associated with decreased productivity and increased risk of developing abomasal displacement, retained placenta and other common conditions of the periparturient dairy cow. Several strategies for milk fever prevention have been developed over the past decades but no single approach has been found suitable for all husbandry and farming settings. One of the oldest recommendations is to feed a diet low in calcium in the last weeks of pregnancy. In practice formulation of such a calcium deficient ration however turns out to be difficult due to the high calcium contents of many commonly used ration ingredients. An alternative method to induce a negative calcium balance before calving is the use of calcium binders (Zeolite A, rumen protected rice bran) that are mixed into the dry cow ration during the last two to three weeks of gestation. Zeolite A indeed results in higher blood calcium concentrations around parturition but at the same time tends to negatively affect dry matter intake and has been associated with decreased blood phosphate and magnesium concentrations in the periparturient period. Rumen protected rice bran is supposed not to negatively affect dry matter intake. Repeated oral administration of calcium-containing compounds around parturition is recognized as an effective but labor-intensive approach to prevent or alleviate periparturient hypocalcemia. Repeated doses of 50-100 g of elemental calcium administered as a bolus, gel or drench in a twelve to 24 hours interval have been recommended. Another strategy for milk fever prevention with proven efficacy is the use of so called anionic salts in the dry cow ration in the last two to three weeks of gestation which results in mild to moderate acidification of the organism. Disadvantages of the use of anionic salts are their poor palatability, limiting the amount of salts that can be fed without negative effects on dry matter feed intake, and the incompatibility with dry cow rations with high potassium content, antagonizing the effects of the anionic salts. The use of anionic salts is therefore not suited for farms feeding dry cows rations with a high content of grass rich in potassium. The parenteral administration of vitamin D shortly before calving is a further method that proved effective in reducing the incidence of periparturient recumbency. Disadvantages are the narrow therapeutic index of vitamin D presenting an increased health risk with high or repeated doses as well as the increased occurrence of subclinical hypocalcaemia during the first two weeks of lactation in cows treated with vitamin D3. Strategies that did not prove effective for milk fever prevention are partial milkout after calving and the intravenous infusion of calcium salt solutions. The prophylactic intravenous administration of calcium salts interferes with the regulation of calcium homeostasis resulting in lower blood calcium levels in the days after treatment compared to untreated cows.


Caria M.,TU Braunschweig | Schudrowitz J.,TU Braunschweig | Jukan A.,TU Braunschweig | Kemper N.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover
2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO 2017 - Proceedings | Year: 2017

Smart sensing and computing have become important concepts in the last few years, creating opportunities in the new sector of smart agriculture. A few commercial smart agriculture systems have been introduced to this end, and albeit closed for experimentation, are paving the way for high-tech innovations for crop and livestock agriculture. In this paper, we focus on open and low-cost concepts for smart fog (edge) computing systems to create a smart farm animal welfare monitoring system. We develop an open source system that enables networking and computing of edge devices but also processing of data in a server - all being a connected system that we refer to as smart farm computing system. We propose to use Raspberry Pis as edge devices to monitor the animals and the farm environment, and we let the edge devices communicate with a local farm controller. The proposed farm computing system conceptually creates a fog computing layer and is further connected with cloud computing systems and a mobile application. We demonstrate that a low-cost and open computing and sensing system can effectively monitor multiple parameters related to animal welfare. © 2017 Croatian Society MIPRO.


Osigus H.-J.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Eitel M.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Eitel M.,University of Hong Kong | Bernt M.,University of Leipzig | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Unraveling the base of metazoan evolution is of crucial importance for rooting the metazoan Tree of Life. This subject has attracted substantial attention for more than a century and recently fueled a burst of modern phylogenetic studies. Conflicting scenarios from different studies and incongruent results from nuclear versus mitochondrial markers challenge current molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we analyze the presently most comprehensive data sets of mitochondrial genomes from non-bilaterian animals to illuminate the phylogenetic relationships among early branching metazoan phyla. The results of our analyses illustrate the value of mitogenomics and support previously known topologies between animal phyla but also identify several problematic taxa, which are sensitive to long branch artifacts or missing data. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Rehm P.,Biozentrum Grindel and Zoologisches Museum | Borner J.,Biozentrum Grindel and Zoologisches Museum | Meusemann K.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | von Reumont B.M.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Molecular sequences do not only allow the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species, but also provide information on the approximate divergence times. Whereas the fossil record dates the origin of most multicellular animal phyla during the Cambrian explosion less than 540. million. years. ago. (mya), molecular clock calculations usually suggest much older dates. Here we used a large multiple sequence alignment derived from Expressed Sequence Tags and genomes comprising 129. genes (37,476 amino acid positions) and 117. taxa, including 101. arthropods. We obtained consistent divergence time estimates applying relaxed Bayesian clock models with different priors and multiple calibration points. While the influence of substitution rates, missing data, and model priors were negligible, the clock model had significant effect. A log-normal autocorrelated model was selected on basis of cross-validation. We calculated that arthropods emerged ~600. mya. Onychophorans (velvet worms) and euarthropods split ~590. mya, Pancrustacea and Myriochelata ~560. mya, Myriapoda and Chelicerata ~555. mya, and 'Crustacea' and Hexapoda ~510. mya. Endopterygote insects appeared ~390. mya. These dates are considerably younger than most previous molecular clock estimates and in better agreement with the fossil record. Nevertheless, a Precambrian origin of arthropods and other metazoan phyla is still supported. Our results also demonstrate the applicability of large datasets of random nuclear sequences for approximating the timing of multicellular animal evolution. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Tenhaven C.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover
GMS Zeitschrift für medizinische Ausbildung | Year: 2013

Introduction: Informal and formal lifelong learning is essential at university and in the workplace. Apart from classical learning techniques, Web 2.0 tools can be used. It is controversial whether there is a so-called net generation amongst people under 30. Aims: To test the hypothesis that a net generation among students and young veterinarians exists. Methods: An online survey of students and veterinarians was conducted in the German-speaking countries which was advertised via online media and traditional print media. Results: 1780 people took part in the survey. Students and veterinarians have different usage patterns regarding social networks (91.9% vs. 69%) and IM (55.9% vs. 24.5%). All tools were predominantly used passively and in private, to a lesser extent also professionally and for studying. Outlook: The use of Web 2.0 tools is useful, however, teaching information and media skills, preparing codes of conduct for the internet and verification of user generated content is essential.


Dilly M.,Clinical Skills Laboratory | Gruber C.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover
GMS Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Ausbildung | Year: 2016

Since 2012, skills labs have been set up to teach practical skills at veterinary training facilities in the German-speaking world. In addition to didactic considerations, ethical points of view in terms of animal protection form the basis of the increasing significance of skills labs in veterinary medicine. Not least because of the quality standards in veterinary medicine training which apply across Europe, the link between veterinary medicine training facilities is particularly significant when it comes to the setting up and development of skills labs. The Committee on Veterinary Medicine is therefore not only interested in exchange and cooperation within veterinary medicine, but also sees an opportunity for mutual gain in the link with the Society for Medical Education Committee “Practical Skills”. © 2016 Dilly et al.


Short-time variations in the concentration of airborne bacteria and mould spores were investigated at different locations (urban, rural, forest, hayfield) in the northern part of Germany using different sampling techniques (filter, Impinger, Coriolis®-Sampler, impactor, Bio-aerosol spectrometer). The bacteria concentrations changed sometimes by the third power of ten within one hour. Even from one minute to another the number of bacteria (colony forming units, cfu) increased 500-fold as observed at the sampling place in the forest. In contrast, concentrations of mould spores varied by a factor 3 only. These sudden fluctuations clearly influenced the results obtained by different sampling methods when short-term air samples were taken. They seem to have also a significant influence on long-term sampling, as e. g. the numbers of cfu obtained by impingement can differ between two 30-minutes samplings up to the power of ten. These reported large fluctuations should be taken into account when investigating and assessing the so-called natural background concentrations of airborne bacteria in a certain region.


Eitel M.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Guidi L.,Life and Environment science | Hadrys H.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Hadrys H.,Yale University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Unraveling animal life cycles and embryonic development is basic to understanding animal biology and often sheds light on phylogenetic relationships. A key group for understanding the evolution of the Metazoa is the early branching phylum Placozoa, which has attracted rapidly increasing attention. Despite over a hundred years of placozoan research the life cycle of this enigmatic phylum remains unknown. Placozoa are a unique model system for which the nuclear genome was published before the basic biology (i.e. life cycle and development) has been unraveled. Four organismal studies have reported the development of oocytes and one genetic study has nourished the hypothesis of sexual reproduction in natural populations at least in the past. Here we report new observations on sexual reproduction and embryonic development in the Placozoa and support the hypothesis of current sexual reproduction. The regular observation of oocytes and expressed sperm markers provide support that placozoans reproduce sexually in the field. Using whole genome and EST sequences and additional cDNA cloning we identified five conserved sperm markers, characteristic for different stages in spermatogenesis. We also report details on the embryonic development up to a 128-cell stage and new ultrastructural features occurring during early development. These results suggest that sperm and oocyte generation and maturation occur in different placozoans and that clonal lineages reproduce bisexually in addition to the standard mode of vegetative reproduction. The sum of observations is best congruent with the hypothesis of a simple life cycle with an alternation of reproductive modes between bisexual and vegetative reproduction. © 2011 Eitel et al.


Tenhaven C.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Tipold A.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover | Fischer M.R.,Klinikum der LMU Munich | Ehlers J.P.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover
GMS Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Ausbildung | Year: 2013

Introduction: Informal and formal lifelong learning is essential at university and in the workplace. Apart from classical learning techniques, Web 2.0 tools can be used. It is controversial whether there is a so-called net generation amongst people under 30. Aims: To test the hypothesis that a net generation among students and young veterinarians exists. Methods: An online survey of students and veterinarians was conducted in the German-speaking countries which was advertised via online media and traditional print media. Results: 1780 people took part in the survey. Students and veterinarians have different usage patterns regarding social networks (91.9% vs. 69%) and IM (55.9% vs. 24.5%). All tools were predominantly used passively and in private, to a lesser extent also professionally and for studying. Outlook: The use of Web 2.0 tools is useful, however, teaching information and media skills, preparing codes of conduct for the internet and verification of user generated content is essential. © 2013 Tenhaven et al.

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