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Vij S.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Rink J.C.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics | Ho H.K.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | Babu D.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012

It is generally believed that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) was a unicellular organism with motile cilia. In the vertebrates, the winged-helix transcription factor FoxJ1 functions as the master regulator of motile cilia biogenesis. Despite the antiquity of cilia, their highly conserved structure, and their mechanism of motility, the evolution of the transcriptional program controlling ciliogenesis has remained incompletely understood. In particular, it is presently not known how the generation of motile cilia is programmed outside of the vertebrates, and whether and to what extent the FoxJ1-dependent regulation is conserved. We have performed a survey of numerous eukaryotic genomes and discovered that genes homologous to foxJ1 are restricted only to organisms belonging to the unikont lineage. Using a mis-expression assay, we then obtained evidence of a conserved ability of FoxJ1 proteins from a number of diverse phyletic groups to activate the expression of a host of motile ciliary genes in zebrafish embryos. Conversely, we found that inactivation of a foxJ1 gene in Schmidtea mediterranea, a platyhelminth (flatworm) that utilizes motile cilia for locomotion, led to a profound disruption in the differentiation of motile cilia. Together, all of these findings provide the first evolutionary perspective into the transcriptional control of motile ciliogenesis and allow us to propose a conserved FoxJ1-regulated mechanism for motile cilia biogenesis back to the origin of the metazoans. © 2012 Vij et al.


Von Der Chevallerie K.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule | Rolfes S.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule | Schierwater B.,Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule | Schierwater B.,Yale University
Development Genes and Evolution | Year: 2014

Recent identification of genes homologous to human p53 and Mdm2 in the basal phylum Placozoa raised the question whether the network undertakes the same functions in the most primitive metazoan organism as it does in more derived animals. Here, we describe inhibition experiments on p53/Mdm2 interaction in Trichoplax adhaerens by applying the inhibitors nutlin-3 and roscovitine. Both inhibitors had a strong impact on the animals' survival by significantly increasing programmed cell death (cf. apoptosis, measured via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay). Treatment with roscovitine decreased cell proliferation (visualized by means of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), which is likely reducible to its function as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Obvious phenotypic abnormalities have been observed during long-term application of both inhibitors, and either treatment is highly lethal in T. adhaerens. The findings of this study suggest a conserved role of the p53/Mdm2 network for programmed cell death since the origin of the Metazoa and advocate the deployment of Placozoa as a model for p53, apoptosis, and possibly cancer research. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Development genes and evolution | Year: 2014

Recent identification of genes homologous to human p53 and Mdm2 in the basal phylum Placozoa raised the question whether the network undertakes the same functions in the most primitive metazoan organism as it does in more derived animals. Here, we describe inhibition experiments on p53/Mdm2 interaction in Trichoplax adhaerens by applying the inhibitors nutlin-3 and roscovitine. Both inhibitors had a strong impact on the animals survival by significantly increasing programmed cell death (cf. apoptosis, measured via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay). Treatment with roscovitine decreased cell proliferation (visualized by means of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), which is likely reducible to its function as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Obvious phenotypic abnormalities have been observed during long-term application of both inhibitors, and either treatment is highly lethal in T. adhaerens. The findings of this study suggest a conserved role of the p53/Mdm2 network for programmed cell death since the origin of the Metazoa and advocate the deployment of Placozoa as a model for p53, apoptosis, and possibly cancer research.

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