Stiftung Neanderthal Museum

Mettmann, Germany

Stiftung Neanderthal Museum

Mettmann, Germany
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Hernandez V.,University of Malaga | Jorge-Villar S.,University of Burgos | Jorge-Villar S.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Capel Ferron C.,University of Malaga | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

A representative set of eight lithic tools suitably selected among the very rich Palaeolithic industry collected over the past years in different archaeological sites of the Guadalteba County (Málaga, Spain) has been nondestructively investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy using both portable and benchtop Raman spectrometers. This article reports on the first archaeometric Raman analysis of these archaeological samples with the scope of checking if these readily available, nondestructive, fast and cheap vibrational spectroscopic techniques, which in addition do not require a preliminary sample preparation, could provide any meaningful information for characterizing the mineral composition of chert artefacts and ultimately some specific arguments about their assignment to distinctive groups of raw materials of a particular provenance. On the basis of the vibrational data, it was confirmed that α-quartz was the raw material in all the cases, although a small amount of moganite was also evidenced as a distinctive fingerprint in these chert samples. On the other hand, crusts were mainly made of calcite in all the cases, sometimes accompanied by other minerals such as barite or anatase. This first Raman spectroscopic study on chert and sandstone artefacts from the Guadalteba county reveals that there are good premises for a further and more thorough archaeometric investigation of these lithic tools based on sets of Raman measurements (Raman mapping) on each specimen rather than on single-point Raman experiments such as in the present case, given the wide macroscopic heterogeneity of this kind of samples (colour, grain size, transparency, etc.). The Raman-mapping archaeometric analyses of bulks and crusts would be also complemented with X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Medianero F.J.,Escuela Taller Parque Guadalteba y Red Patrimonio Guadalteba | Ramos J.,University of Cádiz | Palmqvist P.,University of Malaga | Weniger G.,Stiftung Neanderthal Museum | And 17 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

Cleaning works in the cave of Las Palomas in Teba (Málaga, Spain), developed by the Guadalteba Consortium, have provided a number of lithic tools and knapping products that may be ascribed to the Mode III technotypological tradition as well as remains of a number of large mammal species typical of Middle-Late Pleistocene times. Topographic measurements help to place this ancient cave within a karst landform. This discovery opens up new perspectives in the research on the Neanderthal groups that inhabited the valleys of Guadalteba and Turón rivers in the middle basin of the Guadalhorce River, and thus in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Kehl M.,University of Cologne | Burow C.,University of Cologne | Cantalejo P.,Investigador Doctor | Dominguez-Bella S.,Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia | And 11 more authors.
Quaternary Research (United States) | Year: 2016

The newly identified Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba hosts an almost seven-m-thick sediment profile investigated here to elucidate the rock shelter's chronostratigraphy and formation processes. At its base, the sediment sequence contains rich archeological deposits recording intensive occupation by Neanderthals. Luminescence provides a terminus ante quem of 39.4±2.6ka or 44.9±4.1ka (OSL) and 51.4±8.4ka (TL). This occupation ended with a rockfall event followed by accumulation of archeologically sterile sediments. These were covered by sediments containing few Middle Paleolithic artifacts, which either indicate ephemeral occupation by Neanderthals or reworking as suggested by micromorphological features. Above this unit, scattered lithic artifacts of undiagnostic character may represent undefined Paleolithic occupations. Sediment burial ages between about 23.0±1.5ka (OSL) and 40.5±3.4ka (pIRIR) provide an Upper Paleolithic chronology for sediments deposited above the rockfall. Finally, a dung-bearing Holocene layer in the uppermost part of the sequence contains a fragment of a human mandible dated to 4032±39 14CyrBP. Overall, the sequence represents an important new site for studying the end of Neanderthal occupation in southern Spain. © 2016 University of Washington.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IEF | Award Amount: 161.97K | Year: 2015

Our project focuses on the Late Pleistocene human settlement of the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. Namely, it deals with the time span between the Late Middle Palaeolithic and the Solutrean (around 60,000 20,000 years before present). For years, it has been assumed that a population hiatus existed in Central Iberia from the Late Middle Palaeolithic to the final stages of the Solutrean. This has been traditionally explained as a consequence of the harsh ecological conditions of the area during the Last Glaciation. However, recent data coming from the South-East foothills of the Iberian Central Range (Northwest of Guadalajara province) have questioned this model. According to these new data, still scarce and preliminary, we have devised a project aimed to investigate the temporal and geographic extent of the purported Late Pleistocene human hiatus in Central Iberia. We intend to know the nature of this hiatus in terms of human-environment interaction. In order to do that, we propose to conduct new field and laboratory works on three palaeolithic sites located in Northwest Guadalajara. Our methodology will be interdisciplinary, including high-resolution geoarchaeology, lithic technology, and chronometric dating. Results will be discussed both at the Iberian and European levels. We will investigate if population dynamics in Iberia can be explained in terms of European human mobility in the context of global Late Pleistocene climate change. The host institution will be the Neanderthal Museum (Germany). Researchers from this institution are currently involved in an interdisciplinary collaborative research project aimed to study human-environment interaction at the European level. Thus, integration of the proposed project within this wider research framework will provide the applicant with an outstanding context for discussing data and proposing new models at a European scale. It will also provide him with an excellent interdisciplinary training.

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