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Phanuphak N.,Red Cross | Lo Y.-R.,STI Unit | Shao Y.,National Center for Control and Prevention | Solomon S.S.,Johns Hopkins University | And 7 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

An overall decrease of HIV prevalence is now observed in several key Asian countries due to effective prevention programs. The decrease in HIV prevalence and incidence may further improve with the scale-up of combination prevention interventions. The implementation of future prevention trials then faces important challenges. The opportunity to identify heterosexual populations at high risk such as female sex workers may rapidly wane. With unabating HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) populations, an effective vaccine would likely be the only option to turn the epidemic. It is more likely that efficacy trials will occur among MSM and TG because their higher HIV incidence permits smaller and less costly trials. The constantly evolving patterns of HIV-1 diversity in the region suggest close monitoring of the molecular HIV epidemic in potential target populations for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. CRF01-AE remains predominant in southeast Asian countries and MSM populations in China. This relatively steady pattern is conducive to regional efficacy trials, and as efficacy warrants, to regional licensure. While vaccines inducing nonneutralizing antibodies have promise against HIV acquisition, vaccines designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses of greater breadth and depth in the mucosal compartments should be considered for testing in MSM and TG. The rationale and design of efficacy trials of combination prevention modalities such as HIV vaccine and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remain hypothetical, require high adherence to PrEP, are more costly, and present new regulatory challenges. The prioritization of prevention interventions should be driven by the HIV epidemic and decided by the country-specific health and regulatory authorities. Modeling the impact and cost-benefit may help this decision process. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015. Source

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) highlights the need for simple and effective tools to evaluate head and neck lesions and their HPV status. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between abnormal cytology and HPV infection, assessed on cytobrushing samples, and histologically confirmed HNSCC. Second, the authors attempted to investigate whether HPV status on cytobrushing samples reflected that of the tumoral tissue. METHODS: A total of 164 samples from HNSCC, nonmalignant lesions, or healthy mucosae of the oral cavity and oropharynx were collected by cytobrushing in PreservCyt solution and evaluated by liquid-based cytology and Linear Array HPV genotyping test. All the findings from the cytologic samples were compared with those from the corresponding histologic samples. RESULTS: Patients with abnormal cytology had a significantly higher risk of having an HNSCC (odds ratio [OR], 9.18; 95% confidence inteval [95% CI], 3.27-26.49). The association was stronger for oral cancer (OR, 10.86; 95% CI, 2.51-51.06) than oropharyngeal cancer (OR, 8.45; 95% CI, 1.62-49.82). HPV positivity in the oropharyngeal cytobrushing was associated with a nearly 5-fold higher risk of having abnormal cytology (OR, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.57-13.57) as well as histologically proven oropharyngeal cancer (OR, 5.09; 95% CI, 1.09-31.61). Comparing the HPV status on cytologic and corresponding histologic samples from patients with HNSCC, we found that 90.4% of the cases were concordant (kappa, 0.796). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal brushing cytology is strongly associated with a diagnosis of HNSCC, whereas HPV positivity on cytobrushing samples is only associated with oropharyngeal cancer. HPV testing on cytobrushing samples represents a valid option for the assessment of HPV infection in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source

Zhang X.-D.,Ghent University | Temmerman M.,Ghent University | Li Y.,Kunming Medical University | Luo W.,STI Unit | And 3 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objectives: This study assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) from Kunming, China. Additionally, health services needs and use were assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010. Using snowball and convenience sampling, self-identified FSWs were recruited from four urban areas in Kunming. Women consenting to participate were administered a semi-structured questionnaire by trained interviewers identified from local peer-support organisations. Following interview, a gynaecological examination and biological sampling to identify potential STIs were undertaken. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Adolescent FSWs had a mean age of 18.2 years and reported numerous non-paying sexual partners with very low rate of consistent condom use (22.2%). Half (50.3%) the respondents had sex while feeling drunk at least once in the past week, of whom 56.4% did not use condom protection. STI prevalence was high overall (30.4%) among this group. Younger age, early sexual debut, being isolated from schools and family, short duration in sex work, and use of illicit drugs were found to be strong predictors for unprotected sex and presence of an STI. Conversely, having access to condom promotion, free HIV counselling and testing, and peer education were associated with less unprotected sex. The majority reported a need for health knowledge, free condoms and low-cost STI diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to improve coverage, accessibility and efficiency of existing interventions targeting adolescent FSWs. Source

Kasprzyk D.,University of Washington | Montano D.E.,University of Washington | Hamilton D.T.,University of Washington | Down K.L.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs

Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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