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Swaina S.K.,Birla Institute of Technology | Patnaik T.,Stewart Science College | Patnaik P.C.,P.A. College | Jha U.,Birla Institute of Technology | Dey R.K.,Central University of Jharkhand
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

The present work reports the decontamination of fluoride from water bodies using a newly developed hybrid material of (Fe/Zr)-alginate (FZCA) microparticles. The hybrid material was characterized by various instrumentation techniques. The average particle size of the Fe-Zr particle was found to vary between 70.89. nm and 477.7. nm. The XRD pattern of FZCA shows most significant peaks at 11.5, 35.3, 26.9, 39.4 and 56.1 in the 2. θ range of 10-90°. Various physico-chemical parameters such as equilibrium contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration and adsorbent dose, were studied in batch adsorption experiments. The sorption of fluoride follows pseudo-second order kinetics. The positive value of thermodynamic parameter (Δ. Ho) indicates increasing randomness during the sorption process. The desorption characteristic of the hybrid material shows that nearly 89% of fluoride could be leached out at pH 12. A possible mechanism of fluoride removal by the hybrid material was also purposed. Further, the reusable properties of the material support further development for commercial application purpose. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Swain S.K.,Birla Institute of Technology | Patnaik T.,Stewart Science College | Dey R.K.,Central University of Jharkhand
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

The present work reports preparation of a newly developed hybrid material of (Al/Ce)-alginate (Aluminium-Cerium-Calcium-Alginate [ACCA]) micro particles. The hybrid material was characterized by various instrument techniques. The average particle size of Al/Ce mixed metal oxide was found to vary between 29.39 to 553.2 nm. The XRD pattern of ACCA shows most significant peaks at 15.6, 28.4, 31.8, 45.3, 47.6, 56.5, 66.1, 75.3, and 83.9 in the 2θ range of 10-90°. The inorganic-organic hybrid material has the ability to remove fluoride from aqueous solution at the solid-liquid interface. The sorption of fluoride follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Application of linearized form of Freundlich equation indicated the occupancy of 43.2% of active adsorption sites containing equal energy and a favorable condition for the adsorption of fluoride. The positive value of thermodynamic parameter (ΔS°) indicates increasing randomness during the sorption process. The influence of pH upon sorption-desorption characteristic of the hybrid material was quite prominent as evident from leaching of 89% of fluoride at pH 12. A possible mechanism of fluoride removal by the hybrid material was also proposed. Further, the reusable properties of the material support development for commercial application purpose. © 2013 Copyright Balaban Desalination Publications. Source


Swain S.K.,Birla Institute of Technology | Patnaik T.,Stewart Science College | Singh V.K.,Birla Institute of Technology | Jha U.,Birla Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

This study describes the development of meso-structured zirconium phosphate (MZrP) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. The synthesized material was characterized and kinetics of fluoride removal from aqueous solution was studied by batch mode. The influences of pH of solution, initial fluoride concentration, material quantity, and temperature on the kinetic of fluoride removal have been tested in detail. The results of four kinetic models fitted to the experimental data show that the pseudo-second order model gave a better description for the uptake process. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) factors were evaluated to be 44.79kJmol-1 and 0.223kJmol-1K-1, respectively. The value of ΔG was found to be negative indicating feasibility and spontaneity of adsorption. MZrP can be regenerated for further use which was tested up to five cycles of operation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Das S.S.,K B D A V College | Biswal S.R.,Stewart Science College | Tripathy U.K.,B S College | Das P.,K B D A V College
Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of mass transfer on unsteady hydromagnetic free convective flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate in presence of constant suction and heat source. The governing equations of the flow field are solved using multi parameter perturbation technique and approximate solutions are obtained for velocity field, temperature field, concentration distribution, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer. The effects of the flow parameters such as Hartmann number M, Grashof number for heat and mass transfer Gr, Gc; permeability parameter Kp, Schmidt number Sc, heat source parameter S, Prandtl number Pr etc. on the flow field are analyzed with the help of figures and tables. It is observed that a growing Hartmann number or Schmidt number retards the mean velocity as well as the transient velocity of the flow field at all points. The effect of increasing Grashof number for heat and mass transfer or heat source parameter is to accelerate both mean and transient velocity of the flow field at all points. The mean velocity of the flow field increases with an increase in permeability parameter while the transient velocity increases for smaller values of Kp (≤1) and for higher values the effect reverses. A growing Hartmann number decreases the transient temperature of the flow field at all points while a growing permeability parameter or heat source parameter reverses the effect. The Prandtl number increases the transient temperature for small values of Pr (≤1) and for higher values the effect reverses. The effect of increasing Schmidt number is to reduce the concentration boundary layer thickness of the flow field at all points. The problem has some relevance in the geophysical and astrophysical studies. Source


Swain S.K.,Birla Institute of Technology | Mishra S.,Birla Institute of Technology | Patnaik T.,Stewart Science College | Patel R.K.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

A novel zirconium(IV)-ethylenediamine (ZrEDA) hybrid material was prepared by mixing aqueous solution of zirconium oxychloride (0.1M) and aqueous solution of ethylenediamine (0.1M) following an environmental friendly sol-gel method. The material was characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM combined with energy dispersive spectrum technique. The hybrid material was tested for removal of fluoride with variation of solution parameters. The extent of fluoride removal was more than 99% and fluoride adsorption equilibrium was attained in a 14min time period. The adsorption follows a pseudo second order kinetics with theoretical adsorption capacity (q e,cal) and experimental adsorption capacity (q e,exp) close to each other. The value of thermodynamic parameter ΔH indicated an endothermic adsorption process. A negative value of ΔG shows the feasibility and spontaneity of material-anion interaction. The adsorbed fluoride could easily be desorbed from the material by using 0.1M NaOH solution. Further, the regenerated material was tested up to 10th consecutive cycles of operation without significance loss of adsorption efficiency. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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