Sterling International Inc.

Spokane, WA, United States

Sterling International Inc.

Spokane, WA, United States
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Aldrich J.R.,Jeffrey R. Aldrich Consulting LLC | Aldrich J.R.,University of California at Davis | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc.
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2016

With 6,000 species, Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions, dustywings, and allies) is a relatively small order; however, most larval neuropterans are predacious, often in agricultural systems, lending added importance to this group. Advances in neuropteran phylogeny, most recently through genomic studies, stabilized the nomenclature of this ancestral order of Holometabola, facilitating basic and applied research on these important and interesting insects. The first pheromones for green lacewings (Chrysopidae) have been identified; this, and other research on antlions (Myrmeleontidae), suggests that male-produced long-range pheromones are the norm for the order. Characterizations of the myriad neuropteran exocrine gland systems, including prothoracic, metathoracic, abdominal, dermal, and anal glands, are revealing unforeseen trophic relationships with biological control implications. For examples, males of Chrysopa and other lacewing genera evidently must sequester specific chemical precursors from prey or plants to produce their attractant pheromones, and larval antlion venoms are potentially important genetic leads for insecticidal peptides. © Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Chen G.,General Station of Forest Pest Management | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc. | Wang Y.,Station of Forest Pest Control | Liu G.-T.,Baiyinaobao National Natural Preserve | And 3 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

Background: Field trapping experiments were carried out to evaluate effective trap characteristics for maximising Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg) catches in pheromone-baited traps in China. Results: Window-slot and cross-barrier traps had significantly higher catches than multiple-funnel traps. The colour of window-slot traps showed a significant effect on catches, with dark colours (black and red) being more effective than light colours, especially white and yellow. Window-slot traps at a 1.5-2.0 m level caught more beetles than those at either ground level (0-0.5 m) or at 3.5-4.0 m. Ips duplicatus can be attracted to pheromone-baited traps over a distance of >100 m from the forest edge in an open grassy field. There was a strong diurnal pattern of flight activity, with catches on window-slot traps occurring during the daytime with one broad peak at mid- to late afternoon. The seasonal flight activity of I. duplicatus as monitored by pheromone-baited window-slot traps during 2007-2008 indicated that threemajor flight peaks occurred in early June, late June-early July and late July respectively, suggesting the existence of a potential second generation. Conclusion: The optimal trap characteristics will improve the performance of pheromone-baited traps as a critical monitoring or mass-trapping tool to combat outbreaks of this pest species. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

Jones V.P.,Washington State University | Steffan S.A.,Washington State University | Wiman N.G.,Washington State University | Horton D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2011

We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult green lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found at least five attractants or combinations of attractants were attractive to the three most abundant green lacewing species in our trials. Chrysopa nigricornis and Chrysopa oculata were attracted to the combination of methyl salicylate and iridodial with iridodial alone being the second best attractant. Chrysoperla plorabunda was found in lower numbers than C. nigricornis and C. oculata, but did exhibit a significant attraction to benzaldehyde. In mid-summer, we added the herbivore-induced plant volatile squalene to the study and found it to be exceedingly attractive, but only to male C. nigricornis. Whether alone or in combination, squalene attracted 4-5-fold more C. nigricornis than any other compound tested. Our data have revealed C. nigricornis to be an abundant orchard predator that can be readily monitored with squalene-baited traps. Despite the obvious promise of HIPVs in biological control programs, we urge caution in their deployment as large-scale attractants, at least until further studies have investigated potential disruption of natural enemy population dynamics. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Landolt P.,5230 Konnowac Pass Road | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2016

Chemical attractants for trapping temperate social wasps have been discovered during the screening of chemicals as attractants for flies, the study of pentatomid bug pheromones, and the testing of volatiles of fermented sweet baits. Wasp attraction to these chemicals seems to be related to either food-finding or prey-finding behavior. Of these attractive chemicals, commercial lures marketed in North America for trapping wasps generally contain heptyl butyrate, or the combination of acetic acid and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Heptyl butyrate is a very good attractant for two major pest wasp species in North America and minor wasp pests in the Vespula rufa species group. The combination of acetic acid with isobutanol attracted nearly all North American pest species of social wasps, including yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), a hornet (Vespa crabro), and several paper wasps (Polistes spp.). The testing of wasp chemical attractants in different geographic areas demonstrated responses of many wasp taxa and showed a broad potential scope for the marketing of trap lures. Comparisons of compounds structurally similar to isobutanol revealed similar activity with 2-methyl-1-butanol, which is now used commercially because of a vapor pressure that is more favorable than isobutanol for formulations and dispensers. Doses and concentrations needed for good wasp catches were determined for heptyl butyrate, acetic acid, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol, either formulated in water or dispensed from a controlled release device. Trap designs were developed based on consumer considerations; visual appeal, ease and safety of use, and low environmental impact. The resultant lures and traps are marketed in numerous physical and on-line retail outlets throughout the United States and southern Canada. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA)

Zhu J.J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc. | Taylor D.B.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Friesen K.A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Pest Management Science | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. RESULTS: Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2–3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330–360 nm, 460–525 nm and 605–635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. CONCLUSION: Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Miao J.,Henan Academy of Agricultural science | Han B.-Y.,China Jiliang University | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc.
Journal of insect science (Online) | Year: 2014

Feeding activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Gothe) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), on resistant and susceptible cultivars of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) were recorded and analyzed using the direct current electrical penetration graph (EPG) system. Six distinct EPG waveforms characterizing the feeding behavior of the tea green leafhopper, categorized as waveforms A, C, E, S, F, and R, were obtained during the investigation. Duration of passive ingestion, possibly of phloem (E), was the longest among all the probing waveforms on susceptible cultivars, whereas durations of the salivation (S) waveform and stylet work waveform (F) became longer on resistant cultivars. The durations of waveforms S and F on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha were slightly longer than those on the less resistant cultivar Yunguidaye, and both were significantly longer than those on the susceptible cultivars Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1. Waveform E was shorter on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha than on the less resistant cultivars Yunguidaye and was significantly shorter than on the susceptible cultivars (Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1). It is suggested that E, S, and F are the important waveforms related to leafhopper feeding behavior and tea plant resistance. Based on the results, the resistance levels of tea cultivars against the tea leafhopper can be evaluated quickly by direct current EPG. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

Mu D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Cui L.,China Jiliang University | Ge J.,China Jiliang University | Wang M.-X.,China Jiliang University | And 4 more authors.
Insect Science | Year: 2012

The tea green leafhopper,Empoasca vitisGöthe, is one of the most serious insect pests of tea plantations in mainland China. Over the past decades, this pest has been controlled mainly by spraying pesticides. Insecticide applications not only have become less effective in controlling damage, but even more seriously, have caused high levels of toxic residues in teas, which ultimately threatens human health. Therefore, we should seek a safer biological control approach. In the present study, key components of tea shoot volatiles were identified and behaviorally tested as potential leafhopper attractants. The following 13 volatile compounds were identified from aeration samples of tea shoots using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, (E)-ocimene, linalool, nonanol, (Z)-butanoic acid, 3-hexenyl ester, decanal, tetradecane, β-caryophyllene, geraniol and hexadecane. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, the following individual compounds were identified: (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool, as well as two synthetic mixtures (called blend 1 and blend 2) elicited significant taxis, with blend 2 being the most attractive. Blend 1 included linalool, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexenal at a 1 :1 :1 ratio, whereas blend 2 was a mixture of eight compounds at the same loading ratio: (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 2-penten-1-ol, (E)-2-pentenal, pentanol, hexanol and 1-penten-3-ol. In tea fields, the bud-green sticky board traps baited with blend 2, (E)-2-hexenal or hexane captured adults and nymphs of the leafhoppers, with blend 2 being the most attractive, followed by (E)-2-hexenal and hexane. Placing sticky traps baited with blend 2 or (E)-2-hexenal in the tea fields significantly reduced leafhopper populations. Our results indicate that the bud-green sticky traps baited with tea shoot volatiles can provide a new tool for monitoring and managing the tea leafhopper. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Zhang Q.-H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc. | Schlyter F.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Insect predators and parasitoids exploit attractive chemical signals from lower trophic levels as kairomones to locate their herbivore prey and hosts. We hypothesized that specific chemical cues from prey non-hosts and non-habitats, which are not part of the trophic chain, are also recognized by predators and would inhibit attraction to the host/prey kairomone signals. To test our hypothesis, we studied the olfactory physiology and behavior of a predaceous beetle, Thanasimus formicarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), in relation to specific angiosperm plant volatiles, which are non-host volatiles (NHV) for its conifer-feeding bark beetle prey. Methodology/Principal Findings: Olfactory detection in the clerid was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) for a subset of NHV components. Among NHV, we identified two strongly antennally active molecules, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol. We tested the potential inhibition of the combination of these two NHV on the walking and flight responses of the clerid to known kairomonal attractants such as synthetic mixtures of bark beetle (Ips spp.) aggregation pheromone components (cis-verbenol, ipsdienol, and E-myrcenol) combined with conifer (Picea and Pinus spp.) monoterpenes (α-pinene, terpinolene, and Δ3-carene). There was a strong inhibitory effect, both in the laboratory (effect size d =23.2, walking bioassay) and in the field (d =21.0, flight trapping). This is the first report of combining antennal detection (GC-EAD) and behavioral responses to identify semiochemical molecules that bypass the trophic system, signaling habitat information rather than food related information. Conclusions/Significance: Our results, along with recent reports on hymenopteran parasitoids and coleopteran predators, suggest that some NHV chemicals for herbivores are part of specific behavioral signals for the higher trophic level and not part of a background noise. Such bypass-trophic signals could be of general importance for third trophic level players in avoiding unsuitable habitats with non-host plants of their prey. © 2010 Zhang, Schlyter.

Zhang Q.-H.,Sterling International Inc. | Schneidmiller R.G.,Sterling International Inc. | Hoover D.R.,Sterling International Inc.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Background: The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Results: Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. Conclusion: These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Andersson M.N.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Larsson M.C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Blazenec M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Jakus R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2010

abs We identified several compounds, by gas chromatographic- electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), that were antennally active in the bark beetle Ips typographus and also abundant in beetle-attacked spruce trees. One of them, 1,8-cineole (Ci), strongly inhibited the attraction to pheromone in the field. Single-sensillum recordings (SSRs) previously showed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on I. typographus antennae selectively responding to Ci. All Ci neurons were found within sensilla co-inhabited by a pheromone neuron responding to cis-verbenol (cV); however, in other sensilla, the cV neuron was paired with a neuron not responding to any test odorant. We hypothesized that the colocalization of ORNs had a functional and ecological relevance. We show by SSR that Ci inhibited spontaneous activity of the cV neuron only in sensilla in which the Ci neuron was also present. Using mixtures of cV and Ci, we further show that responses to low doses (1-10 ng) of cV were significantly reduced when the colocalized Ci neuron simultaneously responded to high doses (1-10μg) of Cl. This indicated that the response of the Ci neuron, rather than ligand-receptor interactions in the cV neuron, caused the inhibition. Moreover, cV neurons paired with Cl neurons were more sensitive to cV alone than the ones paired with the non-responding ORN. Our observations question the traditional view that ORNs within a sensillum function as independent units. The colocalization of ORNs might sharpen adaptive responses to blends of semiochemicals with different ecological significance in the olfactory landscape. © 2010. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

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