ster Immunology Research Center

Hamilton, Canada

ster Immunology Research Center

Hamilton, Canada
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PubMed | Helmholtz Center Munich, ster Immunology Research Center, McMaster University, University of British Columbia and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ERJ open research | Year: 2016

Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models.


Botelho F.M.,ster Immunology Research Center | Nikota J.K.,McMaster University | Bauer C.M.T.,McMaster University | Morissette M.C.,ster Immunology Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2012

Background: Evidence suggests that dendritic cells accumulate in the lungs of COPD patients and correlate with disease severity. We investigated the importance of IL-1R1 and its ligands IL-1α and β to dendritic cell accumulation and maturation in response to cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke using a whole body smoke exposure system. IL-1R1-, TLR4-, and IL-1α-deficient mice, as well as anti-IL-1α and anti-IL-1β blocking antibodies were used to study the importance of IL-1R1 and TLR4 to dendritic cell accumulation and activation.Results: Acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure led to increased frequency of lung dendritic cells. Accumulation and activation of dendritic cells was IL-1R1/IL-1α dependent, but TLR4- and IL-1β-independent. Corroborating the cellular data, expression of CCL20, a potent dendritic cells chemoattractant, was IL-1R1/IL-1α-dependent. Studies using IL-1R1 bone marrow-chimeric mice revealed the importance of IL-1R1 signaling on lung structural cells for CCL20 expression. Consistent with the importance of dendritic cells in T cell activation, we observed decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation in cigarette smoke-exposed IL-1R1-deficient mice.Conclusion: Our findings convey the importance of IL-1R1/IL-1α to the recruitment and activation of dendritic cells in response to cigarette smoke exposure. © 2012 Botelho et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kolb P.S.,McMaster University | Kolb P.S.,Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health | Ayaub E.A.,McMaster University | Ayaub E.A.,Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Recently, there has been an increasing amount of literature published on the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in various biological systems. 4-PBA is currently used clinically to treat urea cycle disorders under the trade name Buphenyl. Recent studies however have explored 4-PBA in the context of a low weight molecular weight chemical chaperone. Its properties as a chemical chaperone prevent misfolded protein aggregation and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As the ER is responsible for folding proteins targeted for use in membranes or secreted out of the cell, failure of maintaining adequate ER homeostasis may lead to protein misfolding and subsequent cell and organ pathology. Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a molecular repair response. The activation of the UPR aims to restore ER and cellular proteostasis by regulating the rate of synthesis of newly formed proteins as well as initiating molecular programs aimed to help fold or degrade misfolded proteins. If proteostasis is not restored, the UPR may initiate pro-apoptotic pathways. It is suggested that 4-PBA may help fold proteins in the ER, attenuating the activation of the UPR, and thus potentially alleviating various pathologies. This review discusses the biomedical research exploring the potential therapeutic effects of 4-PBA in various in vitro and in vivo model systems and clinical trials, while also commenting on the possible mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mian M.F.,ster Immunology Research Center | Mian M.F.,McMaster University | Ahmed A.N.,ster Immunology Research Center | Rad M.,ster Immunology Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2013

Poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA analogue, has been used extensively for decades to study innate responses in vivo and in different cell types. We have found substantial variability while using poly I:C from different sources. In this study we found that poly I:C from 2 commercial sources induced sharply opposite responses in myeloid and fibroblasts, depending on the length of the poly I:C. Although short poly I:C (~1-1.5 kb) induced greater amounts of TNF-α, IL-8, and IFN-β and a stronger antiviral response in myeloid cells, it was a poor inducer in fibroblasts. By contrast, long poly I:C (>5 kb) preferentially elicited higher cytokine and antiviral responses in fibroblasts and showed diminished responses in myeloid cells. Poly I:C activated NF-κB and STAT-1 signaling in a length-and cell-type-dependent fashion. Mechanistically, short poly I:C was better internalized in the myeloid cells and long poly I:C in the fibroblasts. Finally, long poly I:C required SR-A, whereas short poly I:C required RIG-I and Raftlin. We provide evidence that the length of dsRNA drives distinct innate responses in different cell lineages. These findings may augment in selecting the appropriate poly I:C type to design cell-type-specific potent adjuvants for vaccines against infectious diseases or cancers. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.


Moldaver D.M.,ster Immunology Research Center | Bharhani M.S.,ster Immunology Research Center | Wattie J.N.,ster Immunology Research Center | Ellis R.,ster Immunology Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

In the present study, we show therapeutic amelioration of established ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease following house dust mite (HDM) peptide therapy. Mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA and HDM protein extract (Dermatophagoides species) to induce dual allergen sensitization and allergic airway disease. Treatment of allergic mice with peptides derived from the major allergen Der p 1 suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, tissue eosinophilia, and goblet cell hyperplasia upon rechallenge with allergen. Peptide treatment also suppressed OVA-specific T-cell proliferation. Resolution of airway pathophysiology was associated with a reduction in recruitment, proliferation, and effector function of TH2 cells and decreased interleukin (IL)-17+ T cells. Furthermore, peptide immunotherapy induced the regulatory cytokine IL-10 and increased the proportion of Fox p3+ cells among those expressing IL-10. Tolerance to OVA was not associated with increased IL-35. In conclusion, our results provide in vivo evidence for the creation of a tolerogenic environment following HDM peptide immunotherapy, leading to the therapeutic amelioration of established OVA-induced allergic airway disease. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


Chu D.K.,ster Immunology Research Center | Al-Garawi A.,ster Immunology Research Center | Llop-Guevara A.,ster Immunology Research Center | Pillai R.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 7 more authors.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background: Determining the cellular and molecular phenotypes of inflammation in asthma can identify patient populations that may best benefit from targeted therapies. Although elevated IL-6 and polymorphisms in IL-6 signalling are associated with lung dysfunction in asthma, it remains unknown if elevated IL-6 levels are associated with a specific cellular inflammatory phenotype, and how IL-6 blockade might impact such inflammatory responses. Methods: Patients undergoing exacerbations of asthma were phenotyped according to their airway inflammatory characteristics (normal cell count, eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed granulocytic), sputum cytokine profiles, and lung function. Mice were exposed to the common allergen, house dust-mite (HDM), in the presence or absence of endogenous IL-6. The intensity and nature of lung inflammation, and levels of pro-granulocytic cytokines and chemokines under these conditions were analyzed. Results: Elevated IL-6 was associated with a lower FEV1 in patients with mixed eosinophilic-neutrophilic bronchitis. In mice, allergen exposure increased lung IL-6 and IL-6 was produced by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages. Loss-of-function of IL-6 signalling (knockout or antibody-mediated neutralization) abrogated elevations of eosinophil and neutrophil recruiting cytokines/chemokines and allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate the association of pleiotropic cellular airway inflammation with IL-6 using human and animal data. These data suggest that exacerbations of asthma, particularly those with a combined eosinophilic and neutrophilic bronchitis, may respond to therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway and therefore, provide a rational basis for initiation of clinical trials to evaluate this. © Chu et al.


Jeyanathan M.,ster Immunology Research Center | Jeyanathan M.,McMaster University | McCormick S.,ster Immunology Research Center | McCormick S.,McMaster University | And 19 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

Interaction of mycobacteria with the host leads to retarded expression of T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immunity in the lung. However, the immune mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using in vivo and in vitro models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection, we find the immunoadaptor DAP12 (DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa) in antigenpresenting cells (APCs) to be critically involved in this process. Upon infection of APCs, DAP12 is required for IRAK-M (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M) expression, which in turn induces interleukin-10 (IL-10) and an immunesuppressed phenotype of APCs, thus leading to suppressed Th1 cell activation. Lack of DAP12 reduces APC IL-10 production and increases their Th1 cell-activating capability, resulting in expedited Th1 responses and enhanced protection. On the other hand, adoptively transferred DAP12-competent APCs suppress Th1 cell activation within DAP12-deficient hosts, and blockade of IL-10 aborts the ability of DAP12-competent APCs to suppress Th1 activation. Our study identifies the DAP12/IRAK-M/IL-10 to be a novel molecular pathway in APCs exploited by mycobacterial pathogens, allowing infection a foothold in the lung. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


PubMed | Lund University, Hoffmann-La Roche, 4 Medical Science Graduate Program and., State University of New York at Buffalo and ster Immunology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine | Year: 2015

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). IL-17A is central for neutrophilic inflammation and has been linked to COPD pathogenesis.We investigated whether IL-17A is elevated in NTHi-associated AECOPD and required for NTHi-exacerbated pulmonary neutrophilia induced by cigarette smoke.Experimental studies with cigarette smoke and NTHi infection were pursued in gene-targeted mice and using antibody intervention. IL-17A was measured in sputum collected from patients with COPD at baseline, during, and after AECOPD.Exacerbated airway neutrophilia in cigarette smoke-exposed mice infected with NTHi was associated with an induction of IL-17A. In agreement, elevated IL-17A was observed in sputum collected during NTHi-associated AECOPD, compared with samples collected before or after the event. NTHi-exacerbated neutrophilia and induction of neutrophil chemoattractants over the background of cigarette smoke, as observed in wild-type mice, was absent in Il17a(-/-) mice and in mice treated with a neutralizing anti-IL-17A antibody. Further studies revealed that IL-1 receptor (R)1 signaling was required for IL-17A-dependent neutrophilia. Moreover, deficiency or therapeutic neutralization of IL-17A did not increase bacterial burden or delay bacterial clearance.IL-17A is induced during NTHi-associated AECOPD. Functionally, IL-1R1-dependent IL-17A is required for NTHi-exacerbated pulmonary neutrophilia induced by cigarette smoke. Targeting IL-17A in AECOPD may thus be beneficial to reduce neutrophil recruitment to the airways.


PubMed | McMaster University and ster Immunology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC immunology | Year: 2016

Humanized mouse models are an increasingly popular preclinical model to study the human immune response in a biological system. There are a variety of protocols to generate these mice, each differing in the strain of the recipient, source of hematopoietic stem cells, and mode of transplantation. Though there is well-documented reconstitution information regarding the spleen, blood, and bone marrow, there is little information regarding reconstitution of the lymph node and liver. In this report, we sought to compare reconstitution levels in a variety of immunological tissues, including the lymph node and liver, between mice engrafted intravenously as adults and intrahepatically in newborns.CD34+ cells were enriched from cord blood and transplanted intravenously into irradiated adult NOD-Rag1(-/-)IL2r(-/-) (NRG) mice or intra-hepatically into irradiated newborn NRG mice. At 9-28 weeks post-engraftment, immunological tissues were processed and analyzed for human lymphoid and myeloid subsets. Adult and newborn engrafted humanized mice were comparable in long-term reconstitution of human CD45 cells and subsequent lymphoid and myeloid subsets in the spleen, bone marrow, thymus, lymph node, and liver. Mice engrafted as newborns had a higher level of T-cells and a lower level of B-cells compared to mice engrafted as adults. We observed significant levels of human immune cell engraftment in both the lymph node and the liver, with a predominant adaptive immune population in both compartments.Human immune cells repopulate liver and mesenteric lymph nodes of NRG mice and can be used to study the human immune system in the gastrointestinal tract.


PubMed | McMaster University, ster Immunology Research Center and University of Texas Medical Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Determining the cellular and molecular phenotypes of inflammation in asthma can identify patient populations that may best benefit from targeted therapies. Although elevated IL-6 and polymorphisms in IL-6 signalling are associated with lung dysfunction in asthma, it remains unknown if elevated IL-6 levels are associated with a specific cellular inflammatory phenotype, and how IL-6 blockade might impact such inflammatory responses.Patients undergoing exacerbations of asthma were phenotyped according to their airway inflammatory characteristics (normal cell count, eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed granulocytic), sputum cytokine profiles, and lung function. Mice were exposed to the common allergen, house dust-mite (HDM), in the presence or absence of endogenous IL-6. The intensity and nature of lung inflammation, and levels of pro-granulocytic cytokines and chemokines under these conditions were analyzed.Elevated IL-6 was associated with a lower FEV1 in patients with mixed eosinophilic-neutrophilic bronchitis. In mice, allergen exposure increased lung IL-6 and IL-6 was produced by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages. Loss-of-function of IL-6 signalling (knockout or antibody-mediated neutralization) abrogated elevations of eosinophil and neutrophil recruiting cytokines/chemokines and allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice.We demonstrate the association of pleiotropic cellular airway inflammation with IL-6 using human and animal data. These data suggest that exacerbations of asthma, particularly those with a combined eosinophilic and neutrophilic bronchitis, may respond to therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway and therefore, provide a rational basis for initiation of clinical trials to evaluate this.

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