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Salari F.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Varasteh A.-R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Vahedi F.,ster Immunology Research Center | Vahedi F.,Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

The goal of this study was to investigate whether poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles could enhance sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) efficacy. BALB/c mice sensitized to rChe a 3 were treated sublingually either with soluble rChe a 3 (100 μg/dose) or PLGA-encapsulated rChe a 3 (5, 25, or 50 μg/dose). SLIT with PLGA-encapsulated rChe a 3 (equivalent to 25 and 50 μg rChe a 3 per dose) led to significantly increased antigen-specific IgG2a, along with no effect on allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody levels. In addition, interleukin 4 (IL-4) levels in restimulated splenocytes were significantly less, while interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels, as well as Foxp3 expression, were significantly greater than in the control groups. Our findings suggest that PLGA nanoparticle-based vaccination may help rational development of sublingual immunotherapy through reduction of the needed allergen doses and also significantly enhanced systemic T regulatory (Treg) and T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolb P.S.,McMaster University | Kolb P.S.,Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health | Ayaub E.A.,McMaster University | Ayaub E.A.,Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Recently, there has been an increasing amount of literature published on the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in various biological systems. 4-PBA is currently used clinically to treat urea cycle disorders under the trade name Buphenyl. Recent studies however have explored 4-PBA in the context of a low weight molecular weight chemical chaperone. Its properties as a chemical chaperone prevent misfolded protein aggregation and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As the ER is responsible for folding proteins targeted for use in membranes or secreted out of the cell, failure of maintaining adequate ER homeostasis may lead to protein misfolding and subsequent cell and organ pathology. Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a molecular repair response. The activation of the UPR aims to restore ER and cellular proteostasis by regulating the rate of synthesis of newly formed proteins as well as initiating molecular programs aimed to help fold or degrade misfolded proteins. If proteostasis is not restored, the UPR may initiate pro-apoptotic pathways. It is suggested that 4-PBA may help fold proteins in the ER, attenuating the activation of the UPR, and thus potentially alleviating various pathologies. This review discusses the biomedical research exploring the potential therapeutic effects of 4-PBA in various in vitro and in vivo model systems and clinical trials, while also commenting on the possible mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Botelho F.M.,ster Immunology Research Center | Nikota J.K.,McMaster University | Bauer C.M.T.,McMaster University | Morissette M.C.,ster Immunology Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2012

Background: Evidence suggests that dendritic cells accumulate in the lungs of COPD patients and correlate with disease severity. We investigated the importance of IL-1R1 and its ligands IL-1α and β to dendritic cell accumulation and maturation in response to cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke using a whole body smoke exposure system. IL-1R1-, TLR4-, and IL-1α-deficient mice, as well as anti-IL-1α and anti-IL-1β blocking antibodies were used to study the importance of IL-1R1 and TLR4 to dendritic cell accumulation and activation.Results: Acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure led to increased frequency of lung dendritic cells. Accumulation and activation of dendritic cells was IL-1R1/IL-1α dependent, but TLR4- and IL-1β-independent. Corroborating the cellular data, expression of CCL20, a potent dendritic cells chemoattractant, was IL-1R1/IL-1α-dependent. Studies using IL-1R1 bone marrow-chimeric mice revealed the importance of IL-1R1 signaling on lung structural cells for CCL20 expression. Consistent with the importance of dendritic cells in T cell activation, we observed decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation in cigarette smoke-exposed IL-1R1-deficient mice.Conclusion: Our findings convey the importance of IL-1R1/IL-1α to the recruitment and activation of dendritic cells in response to cigarette smoke exposure. © 2012 Botelho et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chu D.K.,ster Immunology Research Center | Al-Garawi A.,ster Immunology Research Center | Llop-Guevara A.,ster Immunology Research Center | Pillai R.A.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 7 more authors.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background: Determining the cellular and molecular phenotypes of inflammation in asthma can identify patient populations that may best benefit from targeted therapies. Although elevated IL-6 and polymorphisms in IL-6 signalling are associated with lung dysfunction in asthma, it remains unknown if elevated IL-6 levels are associated with a specific cellular inflammatory phenotype, and how IL-6 blockade might impact such inflammatory responses. Methods: Patients undergoing exacerbations of asthma were phenotyped according to their airway inflammatory characteristics (normal cell count, eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed granulocytic), sputum cytokine profiles, and lung function. Mice were exposed to the common allergen, house dust-mite (HDM), in the presence or absence of endogenous IL-6. The intensity and nature of lung inflammation, and levels of pro-granulocytic cytokines and chemokines under these conditions were analyzed. Results: Elevated IL-6 was associated with a lower FEV1 in patients with mixed eosinophilic-neutrophilic bronchitis. In mice, allergen exposure increased lung IL-6 and IL-6 was produced by dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages. Loss-of-function of IL-6 signalling (knockout or antibody-mediated neutralization) abrogated elevations of eosinophil and neutrophil recruiting cytokines/chemokines and allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate the association of pleiotropic cellular airway inflammation with IL-6 using human and animal data. These data suggest that exacerbations of asthma, particularly those with a combined eosinophilic and neutrophilic bronchitis, may respond to therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway and therefore, provide a rational basis for initiation of clinical trials to evaluate this. © Chu et al.

Llop-Guevara A.,ster Immunology Research Center | Chu D.K.,ster Immunology Research Center | Walker T.D.,ster Immunology Research Center | Goncharova S.,ster Immunology Research Center | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b+ DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway. © 2014 Llop-Guevara et al.

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