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Albany, NY, United States

Gao G.,Stemorgan Therapeutics | Schilling A.F.,TU Munich | Yonezawa T.,Scripps Research Institute | Yonezawa T.,Tokyo University of Science | And 5 more authors.
Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2014

Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is a promising but unexplored approach in bone tissue engineering. Appropriate cell types and suitable biomaterial scaffolds are two critical factors to generate successful bioprinted tissue. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate bioactive ceramic nanoparticles in stimulating osteogenesis of printed bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) scaffold. hMSCs suspended in PEGDMA were co-printed with nanoparticles of bioactive glass (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) under simultaneous polymerization so the printed substrates were delivered with highly accurate placement in three-dimensional (3D) locations. hMSCs interacted with HA showed the highest cell viability (86.62 ± 6.02%) and increased compressive modulus (358.91 ± 48.05 kPa) after 21 days in culture among all groups. Biochemical analysis showed the most collagen production and highest alkaline phosphatase activity in PEG-HA group, which is consistent with gene expression determined by quantitative PCR. Masson's trichrome staining also showed the most collagen deposition in PEG-HA scaffold. Therefore, HA is more effective comparing to BG for hMSCs osteogenesis in bioprinted bone constructs. Combining with our previous experience in vasculature, cartilage, and muscle bioprinting, this technology demonstrates the capacity for both soft and hard tissue engineering with biomimetic structures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gao G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Yonezawa T.,Scripps Research Institute | Yonezawa T.,Tokyo University of Science | Hubbell K.,Stemorgan Therapeutics | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2015

Inkjet bioprinting is one of the most promising additive manufacturing approaches for tissue fabrication with the advantages of high speed, high resolution, and low cost. The limitation of this technology is the potential damage to the printed cells and frequent clogging of the printhead. Here we developed acrylated peptides and co-printed with acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel with simultaneous photopolymerization. At the same time, the bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were precisely printed during the scaffold fabrication process so the cells were delivered simultaneously with minimal UV exposure. The multiple steps of scaffold synthesis and cell encapsulation were successfully combined into one single step using bioprinting. The resulted peptide-conjugated PEG scaffold demonstrated excellent biocompatibility, with a cell viability of 87.9 ± 5.3%. Nozzle clogging was minimized due to the low viscosity of the PEG polymer. With osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, the bioprinted bone and cartilage tissue demonstrated excellent mineral and cartilage matrix deposition, as well as significantly increased mechanical properties. Strikingly, the bioprinted PEG-peptide scaffold dramatically inhibited hMSC hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation. Collectively, bioprinted PEG-peptide scaffold and hMSCs significantly enhanced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation for robust bone and cartilage formation with minimal printhead clogging. Inkjet bioprinting is a promising approach for tissue fabrication, yet this technology is limited by potential damage to the printed cells and frequent clogging of the printhead. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using inexpensive and commercially available inkjet printers modified for advanced cartilage and bone tissue fabrication, with minimal printhead clogging. The resulting scaffold favors both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human stem cells, potentially providing engineered bone and cartilage tissue with enhanced biocompatibility and biodegradability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gao G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Schilling A.F.,TU Munich | Hubbell K.,Stemorgan Therapeutics | Yonezawa T.,Scripps Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2015

Objectives: Bioprinting of bone and cartilage suffers from low mechanical properties. Here we have developed a unique inkjet bioprinting approach of creating mechanically strong bone and cartilage tissue constructs using poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate, gelatin methacrylate, and human MSCs. Results: The printed hMSCs were evenly distributed in the polymerized PEG-GelMA scaffold during layer-by-layer assembly. The procedure showed a good biocompatibility with >80% of the cells surviving the printing process and the resulting constructs provided strong mechanical support to the embedded cells. The printed mesenchymal stem cells showed an excellent osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity. Both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation as determined by specific gene and protein expression analysis (RUNX2, SP7, DLX5, ALPL, Col1A1, IBSP, BGLAP, SPP1, Col10A1, MMP13, SOX9, Col2A1, ACAN) was improved by PEG-GelMA in comparison to PEG alone. These observations were consistent with the histological evaluation. Conclusions: Inkjet bioprinted-hMSCs in simultaneously photocrosslinked PEG-GelMA hydrogel scaffolds demonstrated an improvement of mechanical properties and osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, suggesting its promising potential for usage in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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