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Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Venugopal J.,National University of Singapore | Prabhakaran M.P.,National University of Singapore | Zhang Y.,National University of Singapore | Zhang Y.,Donghua University | And 4 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2010

The fracture of bones and large bone defects owing to various traumas or natural ageing is a typical type of tissue malfunction. Surgical treatment frequently requires implantation of a temporary or permanent prosthesis, which is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, especially in the case of large bone defects. Mimicking nanotopography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is advantageous for the successful regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Electrospun nanofibre-based synthetic and natural polymer scaffolds are being explored as a scaffold similar to natural ECM for tissue engineering applications. Nanostructured materials are smaller in size falling, in the 1-100nm range, and have specific properties and functions related to the size of the natural materials (e.g. hydroxyapatite (HA)). The development of nanofibres with nano-HA has enhanced the scope of fabricating scaffolds to mimic the architecture of natural bone tissue. Nanofibrous substrates supporting adhesion, proliferation, differentiation of cells and HA induce the cells to secrete ECM for mineralization to form bone in bone tissue engineering. Our laboratory (NUSNNI, NUS) has been fabricating a variety of synthetic and natural polymer-based nanofibrous substrates and synthesizing HA for blending and spraying on nanofibres for generating artificial ECM for bone tissue regeneration. The present review is intended to direct the reader's attention to the important subjects of synthetic and natural polymers with HA for bone tissue engineering. © 2010. Source

Venugopal J.,National University of Singapore | Rajeswari R.,National University of Singapore | Shayanti M.,National University of Singapore | Low S.,StemLife Sdn BhD | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2013

Electrospraying of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles onto the surface of polymer nanofibers provides a potentially novel substrate for the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into bone tissue regeneration. HA nanoparticles (4%) were electrosprayed on the surface of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (420 ± 15 nm) for bone tissue engineering. PCL/HA nanofibers were comparatively characterized with PCL/Collagen (275 ± 56 nm) nanofibers by FT-IR analysis to confirm the presence of HA. Fabricated PCL/HA and PCL/Collagen nanofibers and TCP (control) were used for the differentiation of equine MSC into osteogenic lineages in the presence of DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid and dexamethasone. Cell proliferation and differentiation into an osteogenic lineage was evaluated by MTS assay, SEM observation, ALP activity, ARS staining, quantification of mineral deposition and expression of osteocalcin. Proliferation of MSCs increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 12% in PCL/Collagen (day 15) compared to PCL/HA nanofibrous substrate. ALP activity was increased 20% in PCL/HA by day 10 confirming the direction of osteogenic lineage from MSCs differentiation. PCL/HA stimulated an increased mineral secretion up to 26% by day 15 on ARS staining compared to PCL/Collagen nanofibers and showing cuboidal morphology by expressing osteocalcin. These results confirmed that the specifically fabricated PCL/HA composite nanofibrous substrate enhanced the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012. Source

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