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Thiel U.,TU Munich | Koscielniak E.,Pediatric 5 Oncology | Blaeschke F.,TU Munich | Grunewald T.G.P.,TU Munich | And 23 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may provide donor cytotoxic T cell-/NK cell-mediated disease control in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, little is known about the prevalence of graft-vs-RMS effects and only a few case experiences have been reported.Methods:We evaluated allo-SCT outcomes of 30 European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)-registered patients with advanced RMS regarding toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after allo-SCT. Twenty patients were conditioned with reduced intensity and ten with high-dose chemotherapy. Twenty-three patients were transplanted with HLA-matched and seven with HLA-mismatched grafts. Three patients additionally received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs). Median follow-up was 9 months.Results:Three-year OS was 20% (s.e.±8%) with a median survival time of 12 months. Cumulative risk of progression was 67% (s.e.±10%) and 11% (s.e.±6%) for death of complications. Thirteen patients developed acute graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) and five developed chronic GvHD. Eighteen patients died of disease and four of complications. Eight patients survived in complete remission (CR) (median: 44 months). No patients with residual disease before allo-SCT were converted to CR.Conclusion:The use of allo-SCT in patients with advanced RMS is currently experimental. In a subset of patients, it may constitute a valuable approach for consolidating CR, but this needs to be validated in prospective trials. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

Novo E.,Centro Interuniversitario Of Fisiopatologia Epatica | Busletta C.,Centro Interuniversitario Of Fisiopatologia Epatica | Bonzo L.V.D.,Centro Interuniversitario Of Fisiopatologia Epatica | Povero D.,Centro Interuniversitario Of Fisiopatologia Epatica | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Liver fibrogenesis is sustained by myofibroblast-like cells originating from hepatic stellate cells (HSC/MFs), portal fibroblasts or bone marrow-derived cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Herein, we investigated the mechanistic role of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways in mediating chemotaxis, a critical profibrogenic response for human HSC/MFs and for MSC potentially engrafting chronically injured liver. Methods: Intracellular generation of ROS and signal transduction pathways were evaluated by integrating morphological and molecular biology techniques. Chemokinesis and chemotaxis were evaluated by wound healing assay and modified Boyden's chamber assay, respectively. Additional in vivo evidence was obtained in human specimens from HCV-related cirrhosis. Results: Human MSCs and HSC/MFs migrate in response to a panel of polypeptide chemoattractants and extracellularly generated superoxide anion. All polypeptides induced a NADPH-oxidase-dependent intracellular rise in ROS, resulting in activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Moreover, menadione or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, which generate intracellular superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, induced ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation and migration. JNK1 activation was predominant for migration as shown by specific silencing. Finally, activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was found in extracts obtained from HSC/MFs during the course of an oxidative stress-mediated model of liver injury and phosphorylated JNK1/2 isoforms were detected in α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts lining fibrotic septa in human cirrhotic livers. Conclusions: Intracellular generation of ROS, through activation of specific signaling pathways, is a critical event for directional migration of HSC/MFs and MSCs. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Mazzini L.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Mareschi K.,Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Unit | Mareschi K.,University of Turin | Ferrero I.,Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Unit | And 7 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2012

Background aims. Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSC) represent a promising tool for stem cell-based clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We present the results of long-term monitoring of 19 ALS patients enrolled in two phase I clinical trials of autologous MSC transplantation. Methods. Nineteen patients (11 male and eightfemale) with ALS were enrolled in two consecutive phase I clinical trials. The patients were followed-up for 6-9 months and then treated with autologous MSC isolated from bone marrow and implanted into the dorsal spinal cord with a surgical procedure. The patients were monitored regularly before and after transplantation with clinical, psychological and neuroradiologic assessments every 3 months, at the tertiary referral ALS center in Novara (Italy), until death. Results. Follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no structural changes (including tumor formation) relative to the baseline throughout the follow-up. There was no deterioration in the psychosocial status and all patients coped well. No clear clinical benefits were detected in these patients but the recruitment and selection of appropriate patients into larger trials will be needed to test the efficacy of the treatment. Conclusions. This study is the first to show the safety of MSC transplantation in the central nervous system during a follow-up of nearly 9 years, and is in support of applying MSC-based cellular clinical trials to neurodegenerative disorders. © 2012 Informa Healthcare. Source

Busletta C.,University of Turin | Novo E.,University of Turin | Valfre Di Bonzo L.,University of Turin | Povero D.,University of Turin | And 12 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2011

Hypoxic conditions have been reported to facilitate preservation of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype and positively affect their colony-forming potential, proliferation, and migration/mobilization. In this study, designed to dissect mechanisms underlying hypoxia-dependent migration of bone marrow-derived human MSC (hMSC), signal transduction, and molecular mechanisms were evaluated by integrating morphological, molecular, and cell biology techniques, including the wound healing assay (WHA) and modified Boyden's chamber assay (BCA) to monitor migration. Exposure of hMSCs to moderate hypoxia resulted in a significant increase of migration of hMSCs in both WHA (from 6 to 20 hours) and BCA (within 6 hours).Mechanistic experiments outlined the following sequence of hypoxia-dependent events: (a) very early (15 minutes) increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which (b) was sufficient to switch on activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2, found to be relevant for the early phase of hMSC migration; (c) hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (facilitated by ROS) and its progressive release that was responsible for (d) a delayed and sustained migration of hMSCs. These results suggest that hypoxia-dependent migration relies on a previously unrecognized biphasic scenario involving an early phase, requiring generation of ROS, and a delayed phase sustained by HIF-1-dependent expression and release of VEGF. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Thiel U.,TU Munich | Wawer A.,TU Munich | Wolf P.,TU Munich | Badoglio M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 56 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Outcomes of Ewing tumor (ET) patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) were compared regarding the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and high-intensity conditioning (HIC) regimens as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched and HLA-mismatched grafts. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 87 ET patients from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Pediatric Registry for Stem Cell Transplantations, Asia Pacific Blood and Marrow Transplantation and MetaEICESS registries treated with allo-SCT. Fifty patients received RIC (group A) and 37 patients received HIC (group B). Twenty-four patients received HLA-mismatched grafts and 63 received HLA-matched grafts. Results: Median overall survival was 7.9 months [±.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.44-10.31] for group A and 4.4 months (±1.06, 95% CI 2.29-6.43) for group B patients (P = 1.3). Death of complications (DOC) occurred in 4 of 50 (0.08) and death of disease (DOD) in 33 of 50 (0.66) group A and in 16 of 37 (0.43) and 17 of 37 (0.46) group B patients, respectively. DOC incidence was decreased (P < 0.01) and DOD/relapse increased (P < 0.01) in group A compared with group B. HLA mismatch was not generally associated with graft-versus-Ewing tumor effect (GvETE). Conclusions: There was no improvement of survival with RIC compared with HIC due to increased DOD/relapse incidence after RIC despite less DOC incidence. This implicates general absence of a clinically relevant GvETE with current protocols. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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