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Palo Alto, CA, United States

Athar T.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Vishwakarma S.K.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | Khan A.A.,Stem Cell Diagnostics
BioNanoScience | Year: 2016

Well-defined metal oxide nanostructured framework was synthesized and fabricated in cost-effective and sensitive manner to give highly reliable and reproducible results under ideal conditions. In this study, the synthesis of La2Ba3O6 was carried out at moderate temperature via wet chemical approach and then final product was dried at room temperature followed by calcinations at 1000 °C for 4 h in dry air to get desired phase-shape product with narrow distribution. The rate of gelation was found to be dependent on the concentration of the reactants and its aging time at controlled temperature. The nanopowder was analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV, thermal analysis, DLS, fluorescence studies, and FTIR techniques. Adjustment of reaction parameters allowed controlling the systematic tuning of the particle size, shape, and functional properties. It was concluded that self-assembly plays an integral part for synthetic approach and thereby opens new exciting opportunities to better understand the formation of micro- to nanoscale framework with mechanistic approach. Emerging applications of metallic oxide nanoparticles lead to vast occupational and other environmental exposure to human and other species. We hypothesized that La2Ba3O6 nanopowder can exert differential cytotoxic effects on various human cell types. Hence, to test our hypothesis, we evaluated the putative cytotoxic effects of La2Ba3O6 nanoparticles on three types of primary human cells named as hepatic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human umbilical cord blood, and neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs/NPCs) by employing established cytotoxicity testing methods. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2012

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project enables the development of a novel technique to screen drugs for toxic effects on the heart. Using heart cells generated from adult cells like skin or fat cells, this platform captures the genetic and disease backgrounds of many different individuals, enabling researchers to conduct a ?clinical trial in a dish?. Using this platform, we can measure the effects of a drug on the electrical, biochemical, and mechanical properties of heart cells.

The broader/commercial impacts of this research are to deliver safer drugs to the marketplace, which can potentially save lives and money for the drug development industry. Current methods for drug screening involve using engineered animal cells, which do not accurately reflect the human heart. Because drug toxicity is the primary cause of drug attrition and withdrawal from the market place, drug companies spend millions of dollars proving that their drugs are safe. This platform may provide a cheaper, faster, and more accurate predictive model of drug toxicity than currently available options; thus, making a significant impact on patients? lives. The objective of this proposal is to perform a direct comparison between this new platform and currently available standards, which will enable its validation to secure both client and investor interest.


Athar T.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Razzaq A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Shafi S.S.M.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Vishwakarma S.K.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2015

In present study we synthesized kinetic controlled Fe3AlO6 nanopowder by hydrolysis of single source molecular precursor in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Structural and morphological properties of the particle were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis-spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The nanocrystalline structure with monophasic was obtained after annealing. The mean particle size (16.5 nm) was calculated by using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size and phase purity depends with temperature along with molar ratio of the molecular precursor, pH, temperature, reaction time along with their synthetic methodology. In this context in vitro culture model system provides a better approach to understand the basic biology of stem cells transplantation in controlled behavioral biological environment. Hence in present study in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed in human neural stem cells (hNSCs) using most commonly used assays i.e., MTT, LDH and FDA. SEM analysis was performed for the hNSCs incubated with Fe3AlO6 nanopowder to assess the changes in cell morphology and distribution of nanoparticles within the cell. Internalization of nanoparticles in hNSCs (after 2 h of incubation) was clearly observed under a conventional inverted microscope in closed 0.4 μm aperture. The results obtained from this study represents the potential usefulness of Fe3AlO6 nanoparticles further help to track transplanted NSCs in animal models further to assess its half life and with high contrast in long-term cell fate determination. Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers. Source


Bardia A.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | Vishwakarma S.K.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | Reddy C.L.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | Raju N.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | And 8 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2016

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous collection of conditions characterized by irreversible expiratory airflow limitation. The disease is interspersed with exacerbations; periods of acute symptomatic, physiological, and functional deterioration. The present study was designed to investigate the role of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) polymorphisms and the risk of COPD. Blood samples from 354 unrelated subject (age range 18–60 years; 156 with COPD, 198 healthy controls) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped for XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asp148Glu using a confronting two pair primers polymerase chain reaction. GA genotype of XRCC1 gene was found to be predominant in the COPD group compared to controls with 1.86-fold increased risk for COPD (OR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.20–2.88, p = 0.0013). TG genotype of APE1 was found to be predominant in COPD group compared to controls with the difference being statistically significant (OR 1.68, 95 % CI 1.08–2.61, p = 0.0043). The GA haplotype was found to be predominant in COPD than controls with a 2.19-fold significant increase (OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.46–3.28, p = 0.003). Polymorphism in XRCC1 and APE1 gene is associated with an increased risk of COPD. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Athar T.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Razzaq A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Shafi S.S.M.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Vishwakarma S.K.,Stem Cell Diagnostics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2015

In present study we synthesized kinetic controlled Fe3AlO6 nanopowder by hydrolysis of single source molecular precursor in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Structural and morphological properties of the particle were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis-spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The nanocrystalline structure with monophasic was obtained after annealing. The mean particle size (16.5 nm) was calculated by using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size and phase purity depends with temperature along with molar ratio of the molecular precursor, pH, temperature, reaction time along with their synthetic methodology. In this context in vitro culture model system provides a better approach to understand the basic biology of stem cells transplantation in controlled behavioral biological environment. Hence in present study in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed in human neural stem cells (hNSCs) using most commonly used assays i.e., MTT, LDH and FDA. SEM analysis was performed for the hNSCs incubated with Fe3AlO6 nanopowder to assess the changes in cell morphology and distribution of nanoparticles within the cell. Internalization of nanoparticles in hNSCs (after 2 h of incubation) was clearly observed under a conventional inverted microscope in closed 0.4 μm aperture. The results obtained from this study represents the potential usefulness of Fe3AlO6 nanoparticles further help to track transplanted NSCs in animal models further to assess its half life and with high contrast in long-term cell fate determination. Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers. Source

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