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Schmaltz-Panneau B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jouneau L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Osteil P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Osteil P.,Stem Cell and Brain Institute | And 18 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

Pluripotency refers to the ability for a single cell to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. In mice, two types of pluripotent stem cells with different features have been obtained in vitro. Naive pluripotent stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of early blastocyst (ESCs) or reprogrammed from somatic cells (iPSCs), while primed pluripotent stem cells are derived from late epiblast (EpiSCs). Cells in a primed pluripotency state are more prone to differentiation and only naive pluripotent stem cells form germline chimera after injection into a blastocyst. Despite numerous attempts, capturing pluripotency in domestic mammalian species has been largely unsuccessful and only primed pluripotent stem cells have been obtained even starting from early blastocyst or reprogramming somatic cells. This raises two questions: whether inner cell mass and epiblast are in naive or primed pluripotency state and what are the transcriptome features of ESCs and iPSCs in these species. To address these questions we compared rabbit ICM, epiblast, ESCs and iPSCs transcriptomes. Our results show that: (i) molecular signature of naïve and primed pluripotency may differ between mice and rabbit embryos; (ii) Genes involved in G1/S transition of the cell-cycle, actin cytoskeleton signaling, development and differentiation pathways are upregulated in ESCs and iPSCs; (iii) ICM and epiblast upregulate pluripotency associated genes and display specific metabolic features. These results denote an advanced primed state of pluripotency for rabbit ESCs and iPSCs and evidence specific functions for ICM and epiblast that are not shared by ESCs and iPSCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Osteil P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Osteil P.,Stem Cell and Brain Institute | Osteil P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Osteil P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 38 more authors.
Biology Open | Year: 2013

Not much is known about the molecular and functional features of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in rabbits. To address this, we derived and characterized 2 types of rabbit PSCs from the same breed of New Zealand White rabbits: 4 lines of embryonic stem cells (rbESCs), and 3 lines of induced PSCs (rbiPSCs) that were obtained by reprogramming adult skin fibroblasts. All cell lines required fibroblast growth factor 2 for their growth and proliferation. All rbESC lines showed molecular and functional properties typically associated with primed pluripotency. The cell cycle of rbESCs had a prolonged G1 phase and a DNA damage checkpoint before entry into the S phase, which are the 2 features typically associated with the somatic cell cycle. In contrast, the rbiPSC lines exhibited some characteristics of naïve pluripotency, including resistance to single-cell dissociation by trypsin, robust activity of the distal enhancer of the mouse Oct4 gene, and expression of naïve pluripotency-specific genes, as defined in rodents. According to gene expression profiles, rbiPSCs were closer to the rabbit inner cell mass (ICM) than rbESCs. Furthermore, rbiPSCs were capable of colonizing the ICM after aggregation with morulas. Therefore, we propose that rbiPSCs self-renew in an intermediate state between naïve and primed pluripotency, which represents a key step toward the generation of bona fide naïve PSC lines in rabbits. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Dolmazon V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dolmazon V.,Stem Cell and Brain Institute | Dolmazon V.,University of Lyon | Alenina N.,Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine | And 25 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

The LIM homeodomain transcription factor 1b (Lmx1b) is a key factor in the specification of the serotonergic neurotransmitter phenotype. Here, we explored the capacity of Lmx1b to direct differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into serotonergic neurons. mES cells stably expressing human Lmx1b were generated by lentiviral vector infection. Clones expressing Lmx1b at a low level showed increased neurogenesis and elevated production of neurons expressing serotonin, serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and transcription factor Pet1, the landmarks of serotonergic differentiation. To explore the role of Lmx1b in the specification of the serotonin neurotransmission phenotype further, a conditional system making use of a floxed inducible vector targeted into the ROSA26 locus and a hormone-dependent Cre recombinase was engineered. This novel strategy was tested with the reporter gene encoding human placental alkaline phosphatase, and demonstrated its capacity to drive transgene expression in nestin+ neural progenitors (NPs) and in Tuj1 + neurons. When it was applied to inducible expression of human Lmx1b, it resulted in elevated expression of serotonergic markers. Treatment of neural precursors with the floor plate signal Sonic hedgehog further enhanced differentiation of Lmx1b-overexpressing NPs into neurons expressing 5-HT, serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and Pet1, when compared with Lmx1b-nonexpressing progenitors. Together, our results demonstrate the capacity of Lmx1b to specify a serotonin neurotransmitter phenotype when overexpressed in mES cell-derived NPs. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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