Stellenbosch University is a leading public research university situated in the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Other nearby universities are the University of Cape Town and University of the Western Cape.Stellenbosch University designed and manufactured Africa's first microsatellite, SUNSAT, launched in 1999.Stellenbosch University was the first African university to sign the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the science and Humanities.The students of Stellenbosch University are nicknamed Maties. Some claim the term arises from their maroon rugby colours: a tamatie is the Afrikaans translation for tomato. It is more likely to come from the Afrikaans colloquialism maat originally used diminutively by the students of the University of Cape Town's precursor, the South African College. Wikipedia.
Stellenbosch University | Date: 2015-03-19
The use of plant material from the Prosopis glandulosa tree (commonly known as Honey mesquite) is described for aiding sporting ability, and in particular for preventing and/or treating muscle injury and enhancing muscle strength. The plant material is typically the dried and ground pods from the tree, but could also be from other parts of the tree, such as the leaves, bark or roots.
Stellenbosch University | Date: 2015-02-13
A biofiltration system for filtering wastewater includes a tower containing a packed bed on which biofilm is able to form and an air inlet below the packed bed and an air outlet above the packed bed. A water feed above the packed bed disperses wastewater over the packed bed. The biofilm serves as a biological contact reactor removing organic and/or inorganic contaminants from the water. Following filtration of the water through the packed bed, filtered water and solid waste sloughed off from the packed bed collects in a sump below the packed bed. Water flows from a water outlet in the sump to a centrifugal separator that separates solid material from water drawn from the sump to expel a waste stream and a filtered water stream.
Stellenbosch University | Date: 2015-05-12
A thermal energy storage facility is provided that consists of a packed bed with an essentially unconstrained outer region and a duct having a heat exchange end region located within a central lower region of the packed bed and a fluid supply end opposite the heat exchange end region. The heat exchange end region of the duct permits heat transfer fluid at an elevated temperature to pass from the duct to the packed bed during a charge cycle to heat the packed bed from an inner region outwards. The heat transfer fluid is drawn from the packed bed into the duct during a discharge cycle.
Pauw A.,Stellenbosch University
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013
The question of why there are so many plant species needs two kinds of answer: an explanation for the origin of plant species, and an explanation for how they can coexist. Pollinators are often implicated in the origin of plant species because adaptation to different modes of pollination can drive divergence in floral traits and bring about reproductive isolation. However, very few studies have attempted to answer the next question: 'Can plant species that differ only in their mode of pollination coexist?' Fragmentary evidence supports the idea that intraspecific competition for pollination resources can limit population growth rate, thus allowing the coexistence of species that use different pollinators, or the same pollinators at different times. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Manley M.,Stellenbosch University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has come of age and is now prominent among major analytical technologies after the NIR region was discovered in 1800, revived and developed in the early 1950s and put into practice in the 1970s. Since its first use in the cereal industry, it has become the quality control method of choice for many more applications due to the advancement in instrumentation, computing power and multivariate data analysis. NIR spectroscopy is also increasingly used during basic research performed to better understand complex biological systems, e.g. by means of studying characteristic water absorption bands. The shorter NIR wavelengths (800-2500 nm), compared to those in the mid-infrared (MIR) range (2500-15 000 nm) enable increased penetration depth and subsequent non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical-free, rapid analysis possibilities for a wide range of biological materials. A disadvantage of NIR spectroscopy is its reliance on reference methods and model development using chemometrics. NIR measurements and predictions are, however, considered more reproducible than the usually more accurate and precise reference methods. The advantages of NIR spectroscopy contribute to it now often being favoured over other spectroscopic (colourimetry and MIR) and analytical methods, using chemicals and producing chemical waste, such as gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This tutorial review intends to provide a brief overview of the basic theoretical principles and most investigated applications of NIR spectroscopy. In addition, it considers the recent development, principles and applications of NIR hyperspectral imaging. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides NIR spectral data as a set of images, each representing a narrow wavelength range or spectral band. The advantage compared to NIR spectroscopy is that, due to the additional spatial dimension provided by this technology, the images can be analysed and visualised as chemical images providing identification as well as localisation of chemical compounds in non-homogenous samples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.
Seddon J.A.,Stellenbosch University
Thorax | Year: 2014
Few studies have described the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in children and evidence-based guidance on management is lacking. We describe the presentation, treatment and outcome in children treated for severe and non-severe MDR-TB in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted an observational cohort study of all children (<15 years) treated for MDR-TB if routinely initiated on treatment between January 2009 and December 2010. Treatment was based on local standard of care, based on international guidelines. Data were collected through family interviews and folder review. Standardised definitions were used for diagnosis, severity of disease, adverse events and outcome. Of 149 children started on MDR-TB treatment, the median age was 36 months (IQR 16-66), 32 (22%; of 146 tested) had HIV infection and 59 (40%) had a confirmed diagnosis. Ninety-four (66%) children were treated with an injectable drug and the median total duration of treatment was 13 months (IQR 11-18). Thirty-six (24%) children were cured, 101 (68%) probably cured, 1 (1%) was transferred out, 8 (5%) were lost to follow-up and 3 (2%) died. Children with severe disease were older (54 months (IQR 18-142) vs 31.5 months (IQR 17.5-53.5); p=0.012), more commonly had HIV infection (OR 6.25; 95% CI 2.50 to 15.6; p<0.001) and were more likely to die (p=0.008). A confirmed diagnosis of MDR-TB is not possible in all cases but this should not impede the treatment of MDR-TB in children. More than 90% of children with MDR-TB can be successfully treated. Non-severe disease could be successfully treated with reduced treatment duration.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-5c-2015 | Award Amount: 3.57M | Year: 2016
The WHO estimates that in 2015 in Africa ~156 million people relied on untreated sources for their drinking water. WATERSPOUTT will design, develop, pilot and field-test a range of, sustainable point-of-use solar disinfection (SODIS) technologies that will provide affordable access to safe water to remote and vulnerable communities in Africa and elsewhere. These novel large-volume water treatment SODIS technologies will be developed in collaboration and consultation with the end-users, and include: 1. HARVESTED RAINWATER SODIS SYSTEMS for domestic and community use. (South Africa, Uganda). 2. TRANSPARENT 20L SODIS JERRYCANS. (Ethiopia) 3. COMBINED 20L SODIS/CERAMIC POT FILTRATION SYSTEMS. (Malawi) These are novel technologies that will create employment and economic benefits for citizens in both the EU and resource-poor nations. WATERSPOUTT will use social science strategies to: a. Build integrated understanding of the social, political & economic context of water use & needs of specific communities. b. Examine the effect of gender relations on uptake of SODIS technologies. c. Explore the relevant governance practices and decision-making capacity at local, national and international level that impact upon the use of integrated solar technologies for point-of-use drinking water treatment. d. Determine the feasibility & challenges faced at household, community, regional and national level for the adoption of integrated solar technologies for point-of-use drinking water treatment. WATERSPOUTT will transform access to safe drinking water through integrated social sciences, education & solar technologies, thus improving health, survival, societal well-being & economic growth in African developing countries. These goals will be achieved by completing health impact studies of these technologies among end-user communities in Africa. Many of the consortium team have worked for more than 15 years on SODIS research in collaboration with African partners.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-08-2014 | Award Amount: 25.06M | Year: 2015
The TBVAC2020 proposal builds on the highly successful and long-standing collaborations in subsequent EC-FP5-, FP6- and FP7-funded TB vaccine and biomarker projects, but also brings in a large number of new key partners from excellent laboratories from Europe, USA, Asia, Africa and Australia, many of which are global leaders in the TB field. This was initiated by launching an open call for Expressions of Interest (EoI) prior to this application and to which interested parties could respond. In total, 115 EoIs were received and ranked by the TBVI Steering Committee using proposed H2020 evaluation criteria. This led to the prioritisation of 52 R&D approaches included in this proposal. TBVAC2020 aims to innovate and diversify the current TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline while at the same time applying portfolio management using gating and priority setting criteria to select as early as possible the most promising TB vaccine candidates, and accelerate their development. TBVAC2020 proposes to achieve this by combining creative bottom-up approaches for vaccine discovery (WP1), new preclinical models addressing clinical challenges (WP2) and identification and characterisation of correlates of protection (WP5) with a directive top-down portfolio management approach aiming to select the most promising TB vaccine candidates by their comparative evaluation using objective gating and priority setting criteria (WP6) and by supporting direct, head-to head or comparative preclinical and early clinical evaluation (WP3, WP4). This approach will both innovate and diversify the existing TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline as well as accelerate development of most promising TB vaccine candidates through early development stages. The proposed approach and involvement of many internationally leading groups in the TB vaccine and biomarker area in TBVAC2020 fully aligns with the Global TB Vaccine Partnerships (GTBVP).
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-5c-2015 | Award Amount: 2.99M | Year: 2016
This project focuses on a major challenge in African countries: In the 15 sub-Saharan African countries 108 million people have limited or even no access to clean water. The SafeWaterAfrica project will research and develop an autonomous and decentralized water treatment system for rural and peri-urban areas which is highly efficient in the degradation of harmful pollutants and at the same time very effective in killing microbiological contaminants. The system will be designed to provide 300 people in rural areas. With a market penetration of 3000 systems the project has the potential to supply 900,000 people within app. four years after the end of the project. The project includes capacity building and business development so that system ownership and responsibility are in the hands of the local rural communities. The joint European-African development will result in a low-cost solution easy to handle and operate. It will take into account the specific cultural aspects of the region and will be designed for operation with local staff and in the responsibility of local communities or local water service providers, respectively. These Made in Africa systems will therefore have a high level of acceptance in the rural areas which promotes the implementation of the technology. Ten transdisciplinary partners from Europe and Africa, assisted by eight enterprises and organisations in the Advisory Board, will work jointly over a project duration of 42 months to adapt a specific European water treatment technology into an African water treatment system solution. Besides, SafeWaterAfrica will generate the technological basis for innovative business models related to the development of water treatment products, which are produced, installed, operated and maintained in Africa. The resulting creation of new jobs will contribute to the social well-being and will promote economic growth in the rural and peri-urban areas of the southern African countries.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-02-2015 | Award Amount: 5.86M | Year: 2016
MinWaterCSP addresses the challenge of significantly reducing the water consumption of CSP plants while maintaining their overall efficiency. Its objective is to reduce evaporation losses and mirror cleaning water usage for small- and large-scale CSP plants through a holistic combination of next generation technologies in the fields of i) hybrid dry/wet cooling systems ii) wire structure heat transfer surfaces iii) axial flow fans iv) mirror cleaning techniques and v) optimized water management. MinWaterCSP will reduce water evaporation losses by 75 to 95% compared to wet cooling systems. It aims to increase the net efficiency of the steam Rankine cycle by 2%, or alternatively reduce the capital cost of a dry-cooling system by 25%, while maintaining cycle efficiency. To complement this, mirror cleaning water consumption will be reduced by 25% through an improved mirror cleaning process for parabolic trough collectors, the development of a cleaning robot for linear Fresnel collectors and a reduced number of cleaning cycles enabled by an enhanced monitoring of the reflectance of the mirrors. Also, comprehensive water management plans for CSP plants in various locations will be developed and combined with plant performance simulations to maximize the impact of the achieved design improvements in a complete system context. Zero liquid discharge and the option of making use of solar energy or low grade waste heat for water treatment will be considered. MinWaterCSP will improve the cost-competitiveness of CSP. This will make CSP more attractive for investment purposes and drives growth in the CSP plant business as well as job creation at European companies which provide technologically advanced CSP plant components. In addition, by making CSP technology more attractive MinWaterCSP contributes to solve the global climate challenge by reducing carbon-dioxide emissions and increasing energy generation from renewable resources.