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Morgenthau A.,Ryerson University | Nicolae A.M.,Ryerson University | Laursen A.E.,Ryerson University | Foucher D.A.,Ryerson University | And 3 more authors.
Biofouling | Year: 2012

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is a chemical agent that acts against microorganisms in a manner similar to that of sodium hypochlorite by releasing free available chlorine. NaDCC has been approved by the WHO for the emergency treatment of water and by the US EPA for routine treatment of water. Previous studies assessing the effectiveness of NaDCC for the treatment of water implied that NaDCC should have a wide array of disinfecting effects beyond the treatment of planktonic cells in potable water. In this study the biocidal effects of NaDCC against Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in different growth modes including planktonic cells and biofilms were explored. The data showed that a 60% dilution of the standard NaDCC solution was effective in the treatment of both P. aeruginosa planktonic cells and biofilms. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kizito A.,Makerere University | Caitlin M.,University of British Columbia | Wang Y.,University of British Columbia | Kasangaki A.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Health Education | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/methodology/approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and potential for school-based educational intervention, and evaluation methodologies used by the authors. Findings: Using HPS to improve oral health is relevant because dental caries and gingivitis/periodontitis negatively impact children's health and quality of life worldwide. WHO has called for effective community-based oral health promotion programs; intervention is simple and low cost; robust evaluation measures exist - the decayed missing filled teeth index and change in cavity rate allow quantitative comparison of oral health status; and questionnaires document changes in knowledge, practices, diet, health-related quality of life, and pain. Practical implications: Poor oral health is a major health issue. Established measures to improve oral hygiene offer an achievable, low-cost HPS entry point; the "knowledge" and "healthy practices" components central to the WHO HPS model are tried and tested and multiple potential benefits are documented. Poor oral health is a non-stigmatized issue, hence intervention is readily accepted, and effective evaluation tools provide evidence of program effect over a short (two to three years) timeframe. Originality/value: Oral health promotion is more affordable and sustainable than the cost of traditional restorative treatments especially in middle- and low-income countries. Success with oral health leads to confidence for expansion of HPS activities to address other health issues relevant to the school community. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Macnab A.J.,University of British Columbia | Macnab A.J.,Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study | Gagnon F.A.,University of British Columbia | Stewart D.,Griffith University
Health Education | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding the World Health Organization (WHO) HPS model. Design/methodology/approach: Using the consensus as its foundation, this review summarizes the underlying educational and social science concepts and factors that contribute to success or failure of HPS, and incorporates peer reviewed papers based on invited presentations at the colloquium and key related literature. Findings: HPS increase knowledge and develop behaviors that benefit the health of children, such schools are also an investment in the well-being of the larger community. Importantly for their long-term psychological health "resilience" is generated by effective HPS programs. Professional development initiatives within schools can catalyze greater absorption of the healthy school approach and focus on best practices. Promotion, support, and evaluation of programs are aided by award schemes and oversight by local or national agencies. And significant educational benefits are accrued for trainees from centers of higher learning involved in HPS program delivery. Practical implications: Educational initiatives that utilize the relative simplicity, low cost, and inherent flexibility of the HPS model can address many significant issues facing today's children. HPS offer an innovative and participatory way to increase the likelihood of the next generation becoming aware of practical ways to positively influence their lifestyle and future well-being. Successful programs are usually those that are relevant, resonate with students, and engage school communities so that they choose to "own" and sustain their program. Originality/value: The consensus statement provides a benchmark of the current status of HPS, and outlines future directions for this model of health promotion. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

De Mello Koch R.,University of Witwatersrand | De Mello Koch R.,Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study | Dessein M.,University of Witwatersrand | Giataganas D.,University of Witwatersrand | Mathwin C.,University of Witwatersrand
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We study the action of the dilatation operator on restricted Schur polynomials labeled by Young diagrams with p long columns or p long rows. A new version of Schur- Weyl duality provides a powerful approach to the computation and manipulation of the symmetric group operators appearing in the restricted Schur polynomials. Using this new technology, we are able to evaluate the action of the one loop dilatation operator. The result has a direct and natural connection to the Gauss Law constraint for branes with a compact world volume. We find considerable evidence that the dilatation operator reduces to a decoupled set of harmonic oscillators. This strongly suggests that integrability in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory is not just a feature of the planar limit, but extends to other large N but non-planar limits. © 2011 SISSA. Source

Dharamsi S.,University of British Columbia | Woollard R.,University of British Columbia | Kendal P.,University of British Columbia | Okullo I.,Makerere University | And 2 more authors.
Health Education | Year: 2014

Purpose: Although medical schools do well in preparing the next generation of practitioners to diagnose and clinically treat illness, they struggle in preparing them with capabilities in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention. Similarly, health promoting schools (HPS) face challenges in working to enhance the health and educational outcomes of children. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The authors draw from their local and international collaborative work as practitioners and medical educators to examine how health professions schools can work in partnership with HPS for mutual benefit. Findings: Health advocacy is a core competency in medical education. A primary focus is on health promotion and disease prevention. However, providing practical, experiential opportunities - "learning-by-doing" - is a challenge. To overcome this difficulty, medical schools may be well served by partnering with HPS. This can provide mutually beneficial learning opportunities that will enable emerging physicians to develop health promotion-related knowledge and advocacy skills while the emerging generation of citizens (the children) are enabled to live healthier and more productive lives. Originality/value: The parallel development of Health Promoting Schools and the teaching of health advocacy to health professionals has proceeded to the point where convergence of the gathered knowledge and experience can provide a powerful and synergistic model to advance both initiatives. This conceptual paper focuses outlines the actions that might achieve this. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

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