Battaglia A.,Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry |
Doccini V.,Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry |
Bernardini L.,Mendel Laboratory |
Novelli A.,Mendel Laboratory |
And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
Background and objectives: Submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements are the most common identifiable causes of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders associated with dysmorphic features. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) can detect copy number variants <1 Mb and identifies size and presence of known genes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of CMA, as a first-tier tool in detecting the etiology of unexplained intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorders (ID/ASDs) associated with dysmorphic features in a large cohort of pediatric patients. Patients and methods: We studied 349 individuals; 223 males, 126 females, aged 5 months-19 years. Blood samples were analyzed with CMA at a resolution ranging from 1 Mb to 40 Kb. The imbalance was confirmed by FISH or qPCR. We considered copy number variants (CNVs) causative if the variant was responsible for a known syndrome, encompassed gene/s of known function, occurred de novo or, if inherited, the parent was variably affected, and/or the involved gene/s had been reported in association with ID/ASDs in dedicated databases. Results: 91 CNVs were detected in 77 (22.06%) patients: 5 (6.49%) of those presenting with borderline cognitive impairment, 54 (70.13%) with a variable degree of DD/ID, and 18/77 (23.38%) with ID of variable degree and ASDs. 16/77 (20.8%) patients had two different rearrangements. Deletions exceeded duplications (58 versus 33); 45.05% (41/91) of the detected CNVs were de novo, 45.05% (41/91) inherited, and 9.9% (9/91) unknown. The CNVs caused the phenotype in 57/77 (74%) patients; 12/57 (21.05%) had ASDs/ID, and 45/57 (78.95%) had DD/ID. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence of the high diagnostic yield of CMA for genetic testing in children with unexplained ID/ASDs who had dysmorphic features. We confirm the value of CMA as the first-tier tool in the assessment of those conditions in the pediatric setting. © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Leblond C.S.,Institute Pasteur Paris |
Leblond C.S.,University Paris Diderot |
Heinrich J.,University of Ulm |
Delorme R.,Institute Pasteur Paris |
And 74 more authors.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. © 2012 Leblond et al. Source
Ho K.S.,Lineagen |
South S.T.,Arup |
South S.T.,University of Utah |
Lortz A.,4p Support Group |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics
Background: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. Methods: Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. Results: We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. Conclusions: We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence. Source
Pinto D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Delaby E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Delaby E.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Delaby E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
And 147 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics
Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10-5) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10-15, ∼3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Source
Sousa I.,University of Oxford |
Clark T.,University of Oxford |
Clark T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Holt R.,University of Oxford |
And 8 more authors.
Background. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are highly expressed in the nervous system and are thought to be key regulators of its development. Here we present an association study analysing the roles of four promising candidate genes - LRRTM1 (2p), LRRTM3 (10q), LRRN1 (3p) and LRRN3 (7q) - in order to identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs. Methods. In order to gain a better understanding of how the genetic variation within these four gene regions may influence susceptibility to ASDs, a family-based association study was undertaken in 661 families of European ancestry selected from four different ASD cohorts. In addition, a case-control study was undertaken across the four LRR genes, using logistic regression in probands with ASD of each population against 295 ECACC controls. Results. Significant results were found for LRRN3 and LRRTM3 (P < 0.005), using both single locus and haplotype approaches. These results were further supported by a case-control analysis, which also highlighted additional SNPs in LRRTM3. Conclusions. Overall, our findings implicate the neuronal leucine-rich genes LRRN3 and LRRTM3 in ASD susceptibility. © 2010 Sousa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source