Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry

Pisa, Italy

Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry

Pisa, Italy
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Loddo S.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital | Loddo S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Parisi V.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital | Parisi V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Defects in the TUSC3 gene have been identified in individuals with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ARID), due to either point mutations or intragenic deletions. We report on a boy with a homozygous microdeletion 8p22, sizing 203kb, encompassing the first exon of the TUSC3 gene, detected by SNP-array analysis (Human Gene Chip 6.0; Affymetrix). Both nonconsanguineous parents come from a small Sicilian village and were heterozygous carriers of the microdeletion. The propositus had a few dysmorphic features and a moderate cognitive impairment. Verbal communication was impaired, with an inappropriate phonetic inventory, important phono-articolatory distortions, and bucco-phonatory dyspraxia. Comprehension was possible for simple sentences. Behavior was characterized by motor instability, high tendency to irritability and distraibility, anxiety traits, and an oppositional-defiant disorder. His parents were of normal intelligence. TUSC3 is thought to encode a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum-bound oligosaccharyltranferase complex that catalyzes a pivotal step in the protein N-glycosylation process. TUSC3 has been recently reported as a member of the plasma membrane Mg2+ transport system, with a possible involvement in learning abilities, working memory and short- and long-term memory. This is the third family in which a deletion has been described. Although the pathogenic mechanism has not been clarified yet, our report argues for a more prominent role of TUSC3 in the etiology of intellectual disability and that deletions encompassing this gene could be more common than expected. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Battaglia A.,Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry | Doccini V.,Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry | Bernardini L.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital | Novelli A.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology | Year: 2013

Background and objectives: Submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements are the most common identifiable causes of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders associated with dysmorphic features. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) can detect copy number variants <1 Mb and identifies size and presence of known genes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of CMA, as a first-tier tool in detecting the etiology of unexplained intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorders (ID/ASDs) associated with dysmorphic features in a large cohort of pediatric patients. Patients and methods: We studied 349 individuals; 223 males, 126 females, aged 5 months-19 years. Blood samples were analyzed with CMA at a resolution ranging from 1 Mb to 40 Kb. The imbalance was confirmed by FISH or qPCR. We considered copy number variants (CNVs) causative if the variant was responsible for a known syndrome, encompassed gene/s of known function, occurred de novo or, if inherited, the parent was variably affected, and/or the involved gene/s had been reported in association with ID/ASDs in dedicated databases. Results: 91 CNVs were detected in 77 (22.06%) patients: 5 (6.49%) of those presenting with borderline cognitive impairment, 54 (70.13%) with a variable degree of DD/ID, and 18/77 (23.38%) with ID of variable degree and ASDs. 16/77 (20.8%) patients had two different rearrangements. Deletions exceeded duplications (58 versus 33); 45.05% (41/91) of the detected CNVs were de novo, 45.05% (41/91) inherited, and 9.9% (9/91) unknown. The CNVs caused the phenotype in 57/77 (74%) patients; 12/57 (21.05%) had ASDs/ID, and 45/57 (78.95%) had DD/ID. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence of the high diagnostic yield of CMA for genetic testing in children with unexplained ID/ASDs who had dysmorphic features. We confirm the value of CMA as the first-tier tool in the assessment of those conditions in the pediatric setting. © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sousa I.,University of Oxford | Clark T.,University of Oxford | Clark T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Holt R.,University of Oxford | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Autism | Year: 2010

Background. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are highly expressed in the nervous system and are thought to be key regulators of its development. Here we present an association study analysing the roles of four promising candidate genes - LRRTM1 (2p), LRRTM3 (10q), LRRN1 (3p) and LRRN3 (7q) - in order to identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs. Methods. In order to gain a better understanding of how the genetic variation within these four gene regions may influence susceptibility to ASDs, a family-based association study was undertaken in 661 families of European ancestry selected from four different ASD cohorts. In addition, a case-control study was undertaken across the four LRR genes, using logistic regression in probands with ASD of each population against 295 ECACC controls. Results. Significant results were found for LRRN3 and LRRTM3 (P < 0.005), using both single locus and haplotype approaches. These results were further supported by a case-control analysis, which also highlighted additional SNPs in LRRTM3. Conclusions. Overall, our findings implicate the neuronal leucine-rich genes LRRN3 and LRRTM3 in ASD susceptibility. © 2010 Sousa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | University of Barcelona, Autonomous University of Barcelona, University of Verona, University of Bologna and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research | Year: 2016

Common variants contribute significantly to the genetics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the identification of individual risk polymorphisms remains still elusive due to their small effect sizes and limited sample sizes available for association studies. During the last decade several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled the detection of a few plausible risk variants. The three main studies are family-based and pointed at SEMA5A (rs10513025), MACROD2 (rs4141463) and MSNP1 (rs4307059). In our study we attempted to replicate these GWAS hits using a case-control association study in five European populations of ASD patients and gender-matched controls, all Caucasians. Results showed no association of individual variants with ASD in any of the population groups considered or in the combined European sample. We performed a meta-analysis study across five European populations for rs10513025 (1,904 ASD cases and 2,674 controls), seven European populations for rs4141463 (2,855 ASD cases and 36,177 controls) and five European populations for rs4307059 (2,347 ASD cases and 2,764 controls). The results showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (95% CI=0.84-1.32) for rs10513025, 1.0002 (95% CI=0.93-1.08) for rs4141463 and 1.01 (95% CI=0.92-1.1) for rs4307059, with no significant P-values (rs10513025, P=0.73; rs4141463, P=0.95; rs4307059, P=0.9). No association was found when we considered either only high functioning autism (HFA), genders separately or only multiplex families. Ongoing GWAS projects with larger ASD cohorts will contribute to clarify the role of common variation in the disorder and will likely identify risk variants of modest effect not detected previously. Autism Res 2016. 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | University of Barcelona, Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Hospital Sant Joan Of Deu, University of Bologna and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of human genetics : EJHG | Year: 2015

Recent findings revealed rare copy number variants and missense changes in the X-linked gene PTCHD1 in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we aim to explore the contribution of common PTCHD1 variants in ASD and gain additional evidence for the role of rare variants of this gene in ASD and ID. A two-stage case-control association study investigated 28 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 994 ASD cases and 1035 controls from four European populations. Mutation screening was performed in 673 individuals who included 240 ASD cases, 183 ID patients and 250 controls. The case-control association study showed a significant association with rs7052177 (P=6.13E-4) in the ASD discovery sample that was replicated in an independent sample (P=0.03). A Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis for rs7052177T considering the four European populations showed an odds ratio of 0.58 (P=7E-05). This SNP is predicted to be located in a transcription factor binding site. No rare missense PTCHD1 variants were found in our ASD cohort and only one was identified in the ID sample. A duplication (27bp) in the promoter region, absent from 590 controls, was found in three ASD patients (Fisher exact test, P=0.024). A gene reporter assay showed a significant decrease in the transcriptional activity (26%) driven by this variant. Moreover, we found that the longest allele of a trinucleotide repeat located upstream from PTCHD1 was associated with ASD (P=0.003, permP=0.0186). Our results further support the involvement of PTCHD1 in ASD, suggesting that both common and rare variants contribute to the disorder.

PubMed | University of Minnesota, Lineagen, University of New Mexico, 4p Support Group and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical genetics | Year: 2016

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation.Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records.We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fishers exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4.We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence.

PubMed | The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Bologna, University of Coimbra, McMaster University and 46 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2014

Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 10(-15), 3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.

Bacchelli E.,University of Bologna | Ceroni F.,University of Bologna | Pinto D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Lomartire S.,University of Bologna | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, neurodevelopmental condition showing extreme genetic heterogeneity. While it is well established that rare genetic variation, both de novo and inherited, plays an important role in ASD risk, recent studies also support a rare recessive contribution. Methods: We identified a compound heterozygous deletion intersecting the CTNNA3 gene, encoding αT-catenin, in a proband with ASD and moderate intellectual disability. The deletion breakpoints were mapped at base-pair resolution, and segregation analysis was performed. We compared the frequency of CTNNA3 exonic deletions in 2,147 ASD cases from the Autism Genome Project (AGP) study versus the frequency in 6,639 controls. Western blot analysis was performed to get a quantitative characterisation of Ctnna3 expression during early brain development in mouse. Results: The CTNNA3 compound heterozygous deletion includes a coding exon, leading to a putative frameshift and premature stop codon. Segregation analysis in the family showed that the unaffected sister is heterozygote for the deletion, having only inherited the paternal deletion. While the frequency of CTNNA3 exonic deletions is not significantly different between ASD cases and controls, no homozygous or compound heterozygous exonic deletions were found in a sample of over 6,000 controls. Expression analysis of Ctnna3 in the mouse cortex and hippocampus (P0-P90) provided support for its role in the early stage of brain development. Conclusion: The finding of a rare compound heterozygous CTNNA3 exonic deletion segregating with ASD, the absence of CTNNA3 homozygous exonic deletions in controls and the high expression of Ctnna3 in both brain areas analysed implicate CTNNA3 in ASD susceptibility. © 2014 Bacchelli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bacchelli E.,University of Bologna | Battaglia A.,Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry | Cameli C.,University of Bologna | Lomartire S.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2015

Chromosome 15q13.3 recurrent microdeletions are causally associated with a wide range of phenotypes, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), seizures, intellectual disability, and other psychiatric conditions. Whether the reciprocal microduplication is pathogenic is less certain. CHRNA7, encoding for the alpha7 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, is considered the likely culprit gene in mediating neurological phenotypes in 15q13.3 deletion cases. To assess if CHRNA7 rare variants confer risk to ASD, we performed copy number variant analysis and Sanger sequencing of the CHRNA7 coding sequence in a sample of 135 ASD cases. Sequence variation in this gene remains largely unexplored, given the existence of a fusion gene, CHRFAM7A, which includes a nearly identical partial duplication of CHRNA7. Hence, attempts to sequence coding exons must distinguish between CHRNA7 and CHRFAM7A, making next-generation sequencing approaches unreliable for this purpose. A CHRNA7 microduplication was detected in a patient with autism and moderate cognitive impairment; while no rare damaging variants were identified in the coding region, we detected rare variants in the promoter region, previously described to functionally reduce transcription. This study represents the first sequence variant analysis of CHRNA7 in a sample of idiopathic autism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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