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Mazzia C.,University of Avignon | Capowiez Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sanchez-Hernandez J.C.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Kohler H.-R.,University of Tubingen | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution

Apple orchards are highly manipulated crops in which large amounts of pesticides are used. Some of these pesticides lack target specificity and can cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. In order to evaluate the environmental risk of these products, the use of transplanted sentinel organisms avoids side-effects from past events and facilitate comparison of multiple sites in a short time. We released specimens of the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in each 5 of two kinds of apple orchards with either conventional or organic management strategies plus in a single abandoned orchard. After one month, individuals were retrieved in order to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Mean values of AChE activity were significantly reduced in all conventional apple orchards compared to the others. Results show that the measurement of biomarkers such as AChE inhibition in transplated X. derbentina could be useful in the environmental risk assessment of post-authorized pesticides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Maier D.,University of Tubingen | Blaha L.,Masaryk University | Giesy J.P.,University of Saskatchewan | Giesy J.P.,City University of Hong Kong | And 11 more authors.
Water Research

Discharge of substances like pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, and chelating agents in surface waters has increased over the last decades due to the rising numbers of chemicals used by humans and because many WWTPs do not eliminate these substances entirely. The study, results of which are presented here, focused on associations of (1) concentrations of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface waters, sediments, and tissues of fishes; (2) results of laboratory biotests indicating potentials for effects in these samples and (3) effects either in feral chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from two German rivers (Schussen, Argen) or in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in bypass systems to streamwater of these rivers or in cages directly in the rivers. The Schussen and Argen Rivers flow into Lake Constance. The Schussen River is polluted by a great number of chemicals, while the Argen River is less influenced by micropollutants. Pesticides, chelating agents, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in effluents of a WWTP discharging to the Schussen as well as in surface water, and/or fishes from downstream of the WWTP. Results obtained by biotests conducted in the laboratory (genotoxicity, dioxin-like toxicity, and embryotoxicity) were linked to effects in feral fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP or in fishes exposed in cages or at the bypass systems downstream of the WWTP. Dioxin-like effect potentials detected by reporter gene assays were associated with activation of CYP1A1 enzymes in fishes which are inducible by dioxin-like chemicals. Abundances of several PCBs in tissues of fishes from cages and bypass systems were not associated with these effects but other factors can influence EROD activity. Genotoxic potentials obtained by invitro tests were associated with the presence of micronuclei in erythrocytes of chub from the river. Chemicals potentially responsible for effects on DNA were identified. Embryotoxic effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio), investigated in the laboratory, were associated with embryotoxic effects in trout exposed in streamwater bypass systems at the two rivers. In general, responses at all levels of organization were more pronounced in samples from the Schussen than in those from the Argen. These results are consistent with the magnitudes of chemical pollution in these two streams. Plausibility chains to establish causality between exposures and effects and to predict effects in biota in the river from studies in the laboratory are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vincze K.,University of Tubingen | Scheil V.,University of Tubingen | Kuch B.,University of Stuttgart | Kohler H.R.,University of Tubingen | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Osterauer R.,University of Tubingen | Kohler H.-R.,University of Tubingen | Triebskorn R.,University of Tubingen | Triebskorn R.,Steinbeis Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology
Aquatic Toxicology

The platinum group metals (PGMs) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) are used in automobile catalytic converters, from which they have been emitted into the environment to an increasing degree during the last 20 years. Despite the bioavailability of these metals to plants and animals, studies determining the effects of PGMs on organisms are extremely rare. In the present study, effects of various concentrations of PtCl2 (0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100μg/L) were investigated with respect to the induction of hsp70 and histopathological alterations in the zebrafish, Danio rerio and the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis. Histopathological investigations revealed effects of Pt on both species, which varied between slight and strong cellular reactions, depending on the PtCl2 concentration. The hsp70 level in M. cornuarietis did not show an increase following Pt exposure whereas it was significantly elevated at 100μg/L PtCl2 in D. rerio. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dittbrenner N.,University of Tubingen | Capowiez Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kohler H.-R.,University of Tubingen | Triebskorn R.,University of Tubingen | Triebskorn R.,Steinbeis Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology
Journal of Soils and Sediments

Purpose: The earthworm species Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei are commonly used in ecotoxicological standard tests. In the present study, we compared the sensitivity of E. fetida with that of two soil-dwelling earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) in order to evaluate the capacity of E. fetida to predict effects of the insecticide imidacloprid. Responses were compared using two endpoints, a biochemical (changes in heat shock protein level (hsp70)) and a behavioural (avoidance behaviour). Materials and methods: For the hsp70 analysis, the earthworms were exposed for 1, 7 and 14 days and the avoidance tests were conducted using a 48-h incubation time. The tested imidacloprid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 4 mg kg-1 soil dry weight (DW). Results and discussion: E. fetida showed significant avoidance behaviour towards all test concentrations (0.2, 0.66 and 2 mg kg-1 DW), while L. terrestris and A. caliginosa did not avoid imidacloprid-contaminated soil. Significant changes in hsp70 level in E. fetida occurred at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg kg-1 DW and 14 days), while no effects were observed until exposure to 2 (A. caliginosa; after 1, 7 and 14 days) and 4 mg kg-1 DW (L. terrestris; after 14 days). The present study revealed species-specific differences in sensitivity with E. fetida being the most sensitive species and L. terrestris the least sensitive. Moreover, some of the observed effects were detected at environmentally relevant concentrations. Conclusions: Our study indicated different sensitivities between closely related species highlighting the importance of using a multiple selection of species in ecotoxicology to predict harmful environmental effects more accurately and minimise underestimations. In the case of testing only one species or one trophic level, a further increase of safety factors is advisable. Moreover, it can be concluded that hsp70 was not a good indicator of imidacloprid toxicity given the low induction for the selected test species. The results of the present study highlight the species dependency of the avoidance test in case of imidacloprid. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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