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Halvorsen A.,Steer Davies Gleave | Koutsopoulos H.N.,Northeastern University | Lau S.,MTR Corporation Ltd | Au T.,MTR Corporation Ltd | Zhao J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2016

Increases in ridership are outpacing capacity expansions in several transit systems. By shifting their focus to demand management, agencies can instead influence how customers use the system and get more out of their present capacity. This paper uses Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system as a case study to explore the effects of crowding reduction strategies and how to use fare data to support these measures. The MTR system introduced a discount in September 2014 to encourage users to travel before the peak and reduce onboard crowding. To understand the impacts of this intervention, first, existing congestion patterns were reviewed and a clustering analysis was used to reveal typical travel patterns among users. Then, changes to users' departure times were studied at three levels to evaluate the promotion's effects. Patterns of all users were measured across both the whole system and for specific rail segments. The travel patterns of the user groups, who have more homogeneous usage characteristics, were also evaluated and revealed groups who had differing responses to the promotion. The incentive was found to have affected morning travel, particularly at the beginning of the peak hour period and among users with commuter-like behavior. Aggregate and group-specific elasticities were developed to inform future promotions and the results were also used to suggest other potential incentive designs. © 2016, National Research Council. All rights reserved.

Nagorsky B.,Metrolinx | Sabag K.,Dillon Consulting | Emerson D.,Parsons Brinckerhoff | Hewitt S.,Steer Davies Gleave
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2016

Governments face critical decisions on how to spend taxpayers' money and must weigh priorities and come to these decisions in a transparent and defensible way. A prioritization tool can play a critical role in informing spending decisions, ensuring that decisions are made in the interest of the public good, and bolstering public confidence in elected officials and the democratic process. Ideally, a prioritization tool not only evaluates potential projects against a desired set of policy objectives but also prioritizes potential projects into an implementation plan through the integration of pragmatic considerations. Metrolinx, an Ontario, Canada, provincial agency tasked with transportation planning for the greater Toronto and Hamilton area, developed a prioritization framework to make recommendations on capital investment in sustainable transportation. This paper summarizes the current prioritization framework, outlines its limitations, and goes on to explore potential remedies to those limitations as well as inherent challenges. Specifically, the paper discusses incorporating broader considerations, including multimodal integration and active transportation, congestion, network effects, and project interdependencies, and bridging the gap between project evaluation and real-world prioritization. The paper presents best-practice research for each broader consideration and posits that these broader considerations can be used to transform evaluation outputs into prioritized implementation plans. © 2016, National Research Council. All rights reserved.

Clark M.,Steer Davies Gleave | Gifford K.,Carplus Trust | Anable J.,University of Aberdeen | Le Vine S.,Imperial College London
Transportation | Year: 2015

Carsharing organizations (known as car clubs in Britain) are today evolving in new ways. One noteworthy development is the growth of the business-to-business (B2B) market, which is motivated in part by operators’ desire to smooth the temporal profile of overall carsharing demand and thereby increase aggregate fleet-utilization rates. In contrast to the widely-studied business-to-consumer (B2C) market, however, comparatively little is known about the B2B segment. This study fills this gap by drawing on a national survey of both Britain’s B2B carsharing members (n = 682) and employers’ corporate travel administrators that oversee an organization’s B2B carsharing membership (n = 127). Analytical methods included both descriptive statistics and multivariate regression techniques. We find that two-thirds (68 %) of B2B members use carsharing for their usual business travel, and that half (51 %) of them previously used their own car for such travel. Approximately one in seven (15 %) respondents indicated that their carsharing membership through their employer has changed their travel habits by allowing them to commute to work less often by private car, as they do not require their own personal car for work-related travel during their workday. It appears that car use for (non-commuting) business purposes may increase, however. This paper concludes with a discussion of open questions that are suggested to motivate the future research agenda. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Alemazkoor N.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Burris M.W.,Texas A&M University | Danda S.R.,Steer Davies Gleave
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2015

The value of travel time savings is often the largest benefit from transportation projects and has been studied extensively. Recently, additional attention has been paid to the fact that travelers also benefit from reliable travel times. The value of reliability (VOR) has usually been estimated through stated-preference data or survey-based revealed preference data. In this research, empirical data were used to estimate VOR. One concern about estimating VOR from empirical data was the lack of a definitive measurement for reliability. Should it be the standard deviation (SD) of travel time, the 95th percentile, or another measure? Data from Katy Freeway in Texas, where travelers chose between tolled but generally more-reliable lanes and free but generally less-reliable lanes, were used in an attempt to find the best measurement of reliability that could lead to the best explanation of travelers' lane choice. Multinomial logit models were used to estimate travelers' lane choice on the basis of trip attributes, including travel time, many measures of travel time reliability, and tolls. Models including only travel time and tolls yielded reasonable results and values of time ($2.78/h, $9.09/h, and $10.52/h for off-peak, shoulder, and peak periods, respectively). However, adding reliability to the models caused many of them to have counterintuitive results, and concluding which measure was the best was impossible. In addition, the results of this research suggested that reliability might not be an influential factor in the lane choice decision on managed lanes, at least when travelers had reasonable knowledge of their potential travel time.

Henao J.J.P.,National University of Colombia | Castro V.F.,Steer Davies Gleave | Calderon C.A.G.,University of Antioquia
DYNA (Colombia) | Year: 2011

This paper presents a brief description of the evolution of "Pico y Placa" (vehicular restriction) in Medellin, a measure to restrict the vehicular circulation during peak hours. An analysis is exposed based on previous studies before its implementation (2004). This article also provides a comparison within the results of subsequent studies (2005 to 2008) with and without restriction. In addition, presents and analyzes its limitations in the long term and the impact on emissions; finally, a set of recommendations are presented to improve and evaluate the vehicular restriction in the future.

Wang J.,Steer Davies Gleave | Nguyen H.,Transport for London | Feng Q.,The Mouchel Group
WIT Transactions on the Built Environment | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the application of variable demand modelling using SATURN. A practical example, i.e. Merseyside Highway model, is presented to illustrate the effects with and without using elastic assignment. The Merseyside Highway Model has been constructed to support the development and assessment of a wide range of potential public transport, road improvement and land use development proposals in the Merseyside area, UK. The development of the future year highway model includes traffic growth to produce the future year matrices, and also the changes to the road networks to reflect the schemes tested. In order to test the robustness of the Merseyside highway scheme, fixed demand and variable demand assignments via travel cost elasticity have been tested with the results compared and discussed in this paper. The Power function is adopted as it has neutral effect on the trip lengths whilst the Exponential function might result in remarkable trips increase/reduction for shorter trips. It is found that by ignoring the behaviour changes to the journey cost, the highway benefits tend to be over-estimated. It is suggested that using pivot-point estimates of elastic demand, it can bring the robustness to the scheme evaluation. © 2011 WIT Press.

Ison S.,Loughborough University | Frost M.,Loughborough University | Watson R.,Steer Davies Gleave
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport | Year: 2012

Over recent years the UK railway industry has seen unprecedented growth in the number of passengers and the amount of freight carried. Expansion in network capacity, however, has not kept pace with this growth. This has led to significant overcrowding and little or no capacity left to run more trains within existing stock or track provision. The UK government however has stated that as part of achieving 'best value' it wants to further increase rail traffic, and has recently set out a strategy to optimise this. This paper reviews the issues associated with the growth in passengers, the demand placed on the network and the policy developed to accommodate and manage it. It identifies the capacity constraints and options identified for capacity enhancement. The paper concludes that while privatisation has made coherent decision-making difficult there is significant experience to be gained in the development of policy and route utilisation strategies.

Vilain P.B.,Steer Davies Gleave | Cox J.,Port Authority of New York and New Jersey | Mantero V.,Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Transit is closely associated with public-sector involvement, including capital costs and significant subsidies of operating costs. The rationale for this involvement is justified on several grounds, including the presence of economies of scale in provision of transit service and the presence of external benefits associated with transit. In a recent study Parry and Small demonstrated that these two effects provide justification for existing subsidy levels for transit service in several cities. In the world of public transit, passenger ferry service in the New York City region is unusual: with the exception of the subsidized and publicly run Staten Island Ferry, the regional ferry system is run primarily with operating costs covered by farebox revenues. Can the arguments for public subsidies for transit extend to this system of private passenger ferries? Would economies of scale and external benefits justify an expanded and subsidized ferry system in the New York City region? These issues are explored by defining the public interest in the context of the system, discussing whether this public interest would justify a structural change in the way passenger ferries are funded in the region, and providing a timely case study, the East River Ferry service started in June 2011. This subsidized service, a ridership success, has capitalized on growing densities along the East River between Queens, Brooklyn, and Manhattan, New York.

Hollander Y.,Steer Davies Gleave
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

Traditional techniques for estimating travel demand models cannot always identify a model if the quality of the input data is poor. These techniques do not allow modelers to easily predefine types of travel behaviors that they or their clients believe cannot be true. Models estimated with the best academic practice also may occasionally fail important validation tests. These factors often lead practitioners to determine model parameters through an inefficient trial-and-error process. A multi-objective model estimation procedure is presented that overrules solutions that cannot meet either statistical or political criteria. This procedure is not intended to criticize the traditional modeling approach, but it illustrates that a more pragmatic approach is available and works efficiently. This conclusion is illustrated in the estimation of a demand model for Dublin, Ireland.

Miller P.,Steer Davies Gleave | de Barros A.G.,University of Calgary | Kattan L.,University of Calgary | Wirasinghe S.C.,University of Calgary
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

Public transportation is often framed as a key component of building sustainable cities. Conversely, the social, economic, and environmental impacts of transport are framed as critical issues that can challenge the sustainability of cities and regions. This paper presents a critical literature review of the relationship between public transportation and sustainability. First the paper offers a review of key sustainable transportation concepts and how public transport contributes to sustainability goals. Second, the paper reviews past studies that analyse sustainable transportation in order to develop recommendations for planning, engineering, and researching sustainable public transport. Finally, the paper concludes by offering suggestions for future research into the sustainability performance of public transit. © 2016, Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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