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King C.M.,Steel Construction Institute | King C.M.,Buckland and Taylor Ltd. | Davison J.B.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2014

This paper reports on a study of local inelastic buckling in square hollow section columns with large plastic rotations. The study was conducted as part of the validation of a proposed design method for discontinuous columns in braced frames in which plastic rotations in the columns are used to limit the moments in the columns. The study included both testing of full-scale columns and a parametric study by finite element analysis. The results demonstrate that current codes permit cross section slenderness in plastic sections which are likely to lead to premature buckling in structures using plastic (inelastic) design if the rotations are large. Design limits are proposed for square hollow sections relating cross-section slenderness to column end rotations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Cashell K.A.,Brunel University | Baddoo N.R.,Steel Construction Institute
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2014

Ferritic stainless steels are low cost, price-stable, corrosion-resistant materials. Although widely used in the automotive and domestic appliance sectors, structural applications are scarce owing to a dearth of performance data and design guidance. The characteristics of ferritics make them appropriate for structures requiring strong and moderately durable structural elements with attractive metallic surface finishes. The present paper provides an overview of the structural behaviour of ferritic stainless steels, including a summary of the findings of a recent European project (SAFSS) on ferritics. Laboratory experiments have been completed including material tests as well as structural member tests, both at ambient and elevated temperatures. The experimental data is supplemented by numerical analysis in order to study a wide range of parameters. The findings of this work have enabled design guidance to be proposed, as discussed herein. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Lawson R.M.,University of Surrey | Lawson R.M.,Steel Construction Institute | Saverirajan A.H.A.,TEP Consultants Pte Ltd
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2011

The elasto-plastic analysis of composite beams is important when considering the increase in bending resistance of the beam and the end slip between the steel and concrete at higher strains. This paper provides a simplified method of elasto-plastic analysis by considering equilibrium of the composite cross-section as a function of its strain profile. A parabolic-rectangular stress block for concrete is used in this model with a declining concrete strength at strains exceeding 0.0035. The bending resistance of the composite beam is expressed as a function of the bottom flange strain, and is compared to fully plastic design to EN 1994-1-1: Eurocode 4 and the AISC LRFD Code. The effect of various parameters on the development of the plastic bending resistance of composite beams is investigated, such as asymmetry of the section, the steel strength, the influence of propped or un-propped construction, strain hardening in the steel and reducing concrete strength at high strains, interface slip, and the effect of openings in the web of the beams. It was found that a moment of 95% of the plastic bending resistance of a composite beam (0.95Mpℓ) is reached at a flange strain of 2 to 4 × yield strain for propped beams and 5 to 10 × yield strain for un-propped beams. When strain hardening in the steel is included in the analysis, bottom flange strains at a moment of 0.95Mpℓ are reduced by up to 30% relative to the case without strain hardening. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cashell K.A.,Steel Construction Institute | Elghazouli A.Y.,Imperial College London | Izzuddin B.A.,Imperial College London
Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper describes numerical and analytical assessments of the ultimate response of floor slabs. Simplified analytical models and finite-element simulations are described and validated against the experimental results presented in the companion paper. The simplified analytical model accounts for membrane action and the underlying mechanisms related to failure of floor slabs by either reinforcement rupture or compressive crushing of the concrete. In this respect, the significant influence of material properties, including bond strength, is considered in the model and described in detail. A detailed nonlinear finite-element model is also employed to provide further verification of the simplified approach and to facilitate further understanding of the overall response. The results and observations of this study offer an insight into the key factors that govern the ultimate behavior. Finally, the models are applied under elevated temperature conditions to demonstrate their general applicability and reliability. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Cashell K.A.,Steel Construction Institute | Elghazouli A.Y.,Imperial College London | Izzuddin B.A.,Imperial College London
Journal of Structural Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with the ultimate behavior of lightly reinforced concrete floor slabs under extreme loading conditions. Particular emphasis is given to examining the failure conditions of idealized composite slabs which become lightly reinforced in a fire situation as a result of the early loss of the steel deck. An experimental study is described which focuses on the response of two-way spanning floor slabs with various materials and geometric configurations. The tests enable direct assessment of the influence of a number of key parameters such as the reinforcement type, properties, and ratio on the ultimate response. The results also permit the development of simplified expressions that capture the influence of salient factors such as bond characteristics and reinforcement properties for predicting the ductility of lightly reinforced floor slabs. The companion paper complements the experimental observations with detailed numerical assessments of the ultimate response and proposes analytical models that predict failure of slab members by either reinforcement fracture or compressive crushing of concrete. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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