Wortmann B.,STEAG Energy Services GmbH |
Knorr J.,TU Dresden
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2012
Background: In 2001 and 2003, at the University of Pavia, Italy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been successfully used in the treatment of hepatic colorectal metastases (Pinelli et al., 2002; Zonta et al., 2006). The treatment procedure (TAOrMINA protocol) is characterised by the auto-transplantation and extracorporeal irradiation of the liver using a thermal neutron beam. Methods: The clinical use of this approach requires well founded data and an optimized irradiation facility. In order to start with this work and to decide upon its feasibility at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, basic data and requirements have been considered (Wortmann, 2008). Computer calculations using the ATTILA (Transpire Inc. 2006) and MCNP (LANL, 2005) codes have been performed, including data from conventional radiation therapy, from the TAOrMINA approach, resulting in reasonable estimations. Results: Basic data and requirements and optimal parameters have been worked out, especially for use at an optimized TRIGA irradiation facility (Wortmann, 2008). Advantages of the extracorporeal irradiation with auto-transplantation and the potential of an optimized irradiation facility could be identified. Within the requirements, turning the explanted organ over by 180° appears preferable to a whole side source, similar to a permanent rotation of the organ. Conclusions: The design study and the parameter optimization confirm the potential of this approach to treat metastases in explanted organs. The results do not represent actual treatment data but a first estimation. Although all specific values refer to the TRIGA Mainz, they may act as a useful guide for other types of neutron sources. The recommended modifications (Wortmann, 2008) show the suitability of TRIGA reactors as a radiation source for BNCT of extracorporeal irradiated and auto-transplanted organs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Wagner W.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Riethmann T.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Riethmann T.,STEAG Energy Services GmbH |
Feistel R.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research |
Harvey A.H.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data | Year: 2011
New reference equations, adopted by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), are presented for the sublimation pressure and melting pressure of ice Ih as a function of temperature. These equations are based on input values derived from the phase-equilibrium condition between the IAPWS-95 scientific standard for thermodynamic properties of fluid H 2O and the equation of state of H2O ice Ih adopted by IAPWS in 2006, making them thermodynamically consistent with the bulk-phase properties. Compared to the previous IAPWS formulations, which were empirical fits to experimental data, the new equations have significantly less uncertainty. The sublimation-pressure equation covers the temperature range from 50 K to the vapor-liquid-solid triple point at 273.16 K. The ice Ih melting-pressure equation describes the entire melting curve from 273.16 K to the ice Ih-ice III-liquid triple point at 251.165 K. For completeness, we also give the IAPWS melting-pressure equation for ice III, which is slightly adjusted to agree with the ice Ih melting-pressure equation at the corresponding triple point, and the unchanged IAPWS melting-pressure equations for ice V, ice VI, and ice VII. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
STEAG Energy Services GmbH | Date: 2010-02-24
A method for operating a hybrid power plant comprising fuel-operated heating and solar energy heating of carrier fluids, wherein a first portion of total power provided by the power plant is based on fuel-operated heating of carrier fluids and a second portion of the total power is based on solar energy heating of carrier fluids, the heat absorbed by a solar energy heated carrier fluid is transferred to a carrier fluid circuit of a fuel-operated part of the power plant. When a sudden increase or reduction of the total power provided by the power plant is required as compared to a basic state, the second portion is first increased or reduced over a short time period in order to provide a positive or negative reserve power. Subsequently, the first portion is slowly increased or reduced and the second portion based on solar energy heating is correspondingly reduced or increased again.
Steag Energy Services Gmbh | Date: 2013-03-14
Methods of removing or softening calcium material from a substrate (e.g., a catalytic converter) and regenerating a catalytic converter are provided. A substrate (e.g., a catalyst support material) having a calcium containing material (e.g., calcium-containing fly ash) embedded or deposited thereon can be treated with a composition including one or more organosulfur oxoacids or salts thereof.
Steag Energy Services Gmbh | Date: 2013-03-13
Methods of removing iron from a catalytic converter having an accumulation of one or more iron compounds and regenerating a catalytic converter are provided. A catalytic converter having an accumulation of one or more iron compounds embedded or deposited thereon can be treated with a substantially aqueous alkaline solution in which the substantially aqueous alkaline solution includes an antioxidant.