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Ste. Michelle Wine Estates | Date: 2015-06-23

Alcoholic Beverages, Except Beers.


Casassa L.F.,Washington State University | Casassa L.F.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Larsen R.C.,Washington State University | Beaver C.W.,Washington State University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2013

I rrigation practices such as regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and winemaking practices such as extended maceration have been experimentally evaluated from a chemical perspective but their impacts on sensory composition and interactive effects merit scientific attention. This study evaluated the sensory impact of extended maceration applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four RDI treatments: Replenishment of 100%, 70%, and 25% of full-vine crop evapotranspiration (ETc) from fruit set until veraison followed by 100% ETc until harvest (labeled 100% ETc, 70% ETc, and 25% ETc, respectively) and 25% ETc from fruit set to veraison followed by 100% ETc from veraison to harvest (labeled 25/100% ETc). Each RDI treatment was replicated four times (n = 4) and made into wine, with two replicates designated as controls (10 day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (30 day skin contact). Wines were evaluated by descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 15) and chemical and sensory data were correlated using canonical correlation analysis. Wine-perceived saturation and purple component ratings were highest in 25% ETc wines and were highly correlated with the concentration of flavonols, malvidin- and delphinidin-derivatives, and small polymeric pigments. Fruit-based aroma descriptors were highest in the 25/100% ETc and 70% ETc wines. Extended maceration increased perceived astringency and bitterness, which were in turn correlated with the concentration of flavan-3-ol and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. These results suggest that moderate RDI protocols such as 70% ETc and 25/100% ETc impact positively the fruity aroma component (black and red fruit), whereas extended maceration lowered fruity aromas, possibly due to the masking effect of the oxidized character perceived in these wines. © 2013 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source


Casassa L.F.,Washington State University | Larsen R.C.,Washington State University | Beaver C.W.,Washington State University | Mireles M.S.,Washington State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ∼73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Tarara J.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Pena J.E.P.,Washington State University | Keller M.,Washington State University | Schreiner R.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Smithyman R.P.,Ste. Michelle Wine Estates
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Whole-canopy net CO2 exchange (NCEC) was measured near key stages of fruit development in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) that were managed under three approaches to regulated deficit irrigation (RDI): (1) standard practice (RDIS), or weekly replacement of 60-70% of estimated evapotranspiration for well watered grapevines; (2) early additional deficit (RDIE), or one-half of RDIS applied between fruit set and the onset of ripening (veraison), followed by RDIS; and (3) RDIS followed by late additional deficit (RDIL), or one-half of RDIS applied between veraison and harvest. Summed between fruit set and harvest, nearly 40% less irrigation was applied to RDIE vines and ∼20% less to RDI L vines than to those continuously under RDIS. After ∼5 weeks of additional deficit, NCEC in RDIE vines was 43-46% less per day than in RDIS vines. After RDIL vines had been under additional water deficit for ∼3 weeks, NCEC was ∼33% less per day than in RDIS vines. Instantaneous rates of NCEC responded rapidly to irrigation delivery and elapsed time between irrigation sets. Concurrent single-leaf measurements (NCEL) reflected the relative differences in NCEC between irrigation treatments, and were linearly associated with NCEC (r 2=0.61). Despite halving the water applied under commercial RDI, mid-day stomatal conductance values in RDIE and RDIL of ∼50-125mmolm-2s-1 indicated that the additional deficit imposed only moderate water stress. There was no effect of additional deficit on yield or berry maturity. © CSIRO 2011. Source

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