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Montréal, Canada

Laberge M.,University of Montreal | Laberge M.,Ste Justine Research Center | Laberge M.,Succursale Center ville | Calvet B.,Ste Justine Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Safety Science

Inexperienced workers are more prone to experience occupational injuries. By definition, a work accident is a sudden or unforeseen event that contributes to an injury. This pilot study aimed to understand the relationship between unforeseen events, their contributing factors, the responses to these events, and the injury risks among young apprentices.Nine apprentices (15-17 yr old) in different companies were videotaped whilst doing normal work tasks (total 79.5 h). Unforeseen events were described according to an observation grid constructed for this study; the following variables were characterized: unforeseen events, immediate contributing factors, strategies (individual vs. collective) and injury risk. All unexpected events observed by trained raters were coded (n = 554). Simple logistic regressions were made to determine the odd of being at risk of injury. The variable "activity sector" was used as control. Falling/dropping object (25.5%) is the most prevalent unexpected event (UE). The most important contributing factor is related to Material/products (44.1%), and Individual strategies were most frequently used by apprentices (81.5%). However, regressions showed that UE related to Handling and Equipment are the most associated with injury risks.Collective strategies to manage UE seem to have a protective role. This study illustrates the duality associated with unexpected event: the potential of those events to develop competencies or the risk of injury associated. Some implications for schools, decision-makers and employer are discussed. © 2016. Source

Laberge M.,University of Montreal | Laberge M.,Ste Justine Research Center | Laberge M.,University of Toronto | Laberge M.,CINBIOSE Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Safety Science

Young workers are frequently injured at work. Education and awareness strategies to prevent injuries among young workers are common but they are often ineffective. These approaches emphasize teaching, rather than learning strategies, and appear to contradict recent competency-based developments in education science. This study aimed to gain insight into the actual safety skills learning process of adolescents in an internship in a high school vocational training program. The results are based on auto and allo-confrontation interviews from an ergonomics intervention study with nine apprentices and five experienced coworkers involved in the training. This technique is suited to obtaining qualitative data on work activities; it consists of interviewing apprentices and co-workers about videotaped work observations to capture the thought processes behind their action. The findings reveal that learning in an actual situation poses challenges because working conditions and also learning conditions are not always optimal. Such conditions prompt apprentices to develop novel strategies to manage unexpected situations. At times, this involved side-stepping a safety rule in order to meet work demands. The use of an ergonomics actual work activity approach allowed the merging of two research topics rarely found together: the socio-ecological paradigm in education and the development of original interventions to prevent occupational injuries among young workers. This intersection of educational theory and injury prevention strategies provides new avenue for improving vocational training programs and developing primary prevention interventions in occupational health and safety programs that target youth. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Ryan N.P.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Ryan N.P.,University of Melbourne | Anderson V.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Anderson V.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma

Emotion perception (EP) forms an integral part of social communication and is critical to attain developmentally appropriate goals. This skill, which emerges relatively early in development, is driven by increasing connectivity among regions of a distributed sociocognitive neural network and may be vulnerable to disruption from early-childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aimed to evaluate the very-long-term effect of childhood TBI on EP, as well as examine the contribution of injury- and non-injury-related risk and resilience factors to variability in sociocognitive outcomes. Thirty-four young adult survivors of early-childhood TBI (mean [M], 20.62 years; M time since injury, 16.55 years) and 16 typically developing controls matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status were assessed using tasks that required recognition and interpretation of facial and prosodic emotional cues. Survivors of severe childhood TBI were found to have significantly poorer emotion perception than controls and young adults with mild-to-moderate injuries. Further, poorer emotion perception was associated with reduced volume of the posterior corpus callosum, presence of frontal pathology, lower SES, and a less-intimate family environment. Our findings lend support to the vulnerability of the immature "social brain" network to early disruption and underscore the need for context-sensitive rehabilitation that optimizes early family environments to enhance recovery of EP skills after childhood TBI. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Bohbot V.D.,McGill University | McKenzie S.,McGill University | Konishi K.,McGill University | Fouquet C.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-years old children to 80-years old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM). The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e., hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks) versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position). With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the down-side of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging. © 2012 Bohbot, McKenzie, Konishi, Fouquet, Kurdi, Schachar, Boivinand Robaey. Source

Ryan N.P.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Ryan N.P.,University of Melbourne | Catroppa C.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Catroppa C.,University of Melbourne | And 13 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping

Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie complex social and emotional behavior including Theory of Mind (ToM). While structural correlates of ToM are well described in adults, less is known about the anatomical regions subsuming these skills in the developing brain or the impact of cerebral insult on the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. This study aimed to examine the differential influence of age-at-insult and brain pathology on ToM in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with TBI (n=112) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) middle childhood (5-9 years; n=41); (ii) late childhood (10-11 years; n=39); and (iii) adolescence (12-15 years; n=32) and group-matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status to a typically developing (TD) control group (n=43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks postinjury and were assessed on a battery of ToM tasks at 6- and 24-months after injury. Results showed that for adolescents with TBI, social cognitive dysfunction at 6- and 24-months postinjury was associated with diffuse neuropathology and a greater number of lesions detected using SWI. In the late childhood TBI group, we found a time-dependent emergence of social cognitive impairment, linked to diffuse neuropathology. The middle childhood TBI group demonstrated performance unrelated to SWI pathology and comparable to TD controls. Findings indicate that the full extent of social cognitive deficits may not be realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Evidence for brain structure-function relationships suggests that the integrity of an anatomically distributed network of brain regions and their connections is necessary for the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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