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Orru M.,University of Cagliari | Grillo O.,University of Cagliari | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Bacchetta G.,University of Cagliari
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2013

In archaeobotanical studies, the taxonomic classification of diaspores has usually been done by simple morphological observation and visual comparison with ex situ collections of seeds, although the use of biometric indices has often proved to be a powerful approach in the taxonomic studies of the genus Vitis as well as for the species attribution of archaeological remains. Using image analysis techniques, seeds from two Sardinian archaeological sites, the pre-Nuragic and Nuragic complex of Sa Osa in central-western Sardinia, attested as the oldest Sardinian archaeological site with remains of Vitis seeds, and the Isola di Coltellazzo in southwest Sardinia, were selected and characterized on the basis of morphological features and Elliptic Fourier Descriptors. Moreover, seeds of five modern populations of V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris collected from southwest Sardinia and the seeds of 41 cultivars of V. vinifera ssp. vinifera mainly from southern and central-western Sardinia were also analysed by computer image analysis. The obtained data were used to implement a database of biometric parameters and to compare the unknown archaeological seeds with the characterized recent seeds, using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The similarity of the archaeological seeds to V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars rather than to V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris populations could allow it to be stated that, between the Middle and Final Bronze Age, varieties very close to modern V. vinifera ssp. vinifera were already being used to produce wine and/or to be preserved for foodstuffs. Moreover, the better matching of the archaeological seeds to white grapes rather than black grape cultivars could indicate the origins of the traditional cultivation of white grapes in these regions of Sardinia. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Raccuia S.A.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | Gallo G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Melilli M.G.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Studies focused on domestic cardoon (C. cardunculus L.) about biomass productions for energy goals in semiarid environments of the Mediterranean basin. Different lines of cardoon for biomass production are in selection at CNR - ISAFOM Catania. In this work it was evaluated one new genotype of domestic cardoon, selected to be cropped with high plant density, in order to maximize the biomass and grain yields. This trial was carried out at Caltagirone, a hilly environment of South Sicily, in 2006-08 growing seasons. The selected genotype "C5" was grown at two different plant densities (8 and 16 plant m -2). The adopted experimental design was randomized block with three replications. The crop was grown under low inputs management. The biomass was harvested on August 2007 and August 2008. At harvest on a large number of plants, for each agronomic replication, the fresh biomass weight and its partitioning were determined. Achenes were obtained trashing the capitulum. In laboratory dry matter content of each part of the plant were calculated in thermoventilated oven at 105°C. On average of all the studied factors biomass yield was 31.9 t ha-1 D.M. and achenes 2.7 t ha-1. The plant density and the age of the crop affected all the studied traits. Lowest productions per plant were recorded during the first year of cultivation. Significative effects of plant density were recorded in cumulative biomass and grain yields. © ISHS.


Lo Bianco M.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Grillo O.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Cremonini R.,University of Pisa | Sarigu M.,University of Cagliari | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2015

Seed morphological traits were used to identify 67 Italian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions, belonging to 58 Italian landraces. An overall of 138 size, shape and texture descriptors were measured, on each seed, using image analysis techniques. The achieved data, analysed applying the stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, allowed to discriminate among bean landraces, also identifying the harvest year and the cropping areas. Comparative analyses were carried out to verify the possibility to distinguish seeds belonging to the same landrace but grown applying different agricultural practices. Preliminarily, it was possible to discriminate three main color categories of bean seeds, with an overall performance of 99.1%. Moreover, for each of these three categories, the belonging bean landraces were identified, with overall correct identification percentages included between 94.3% and 99.7%. Following the same procedure, it was possible to assess the possibility to identify the bean landraces origin, reaching overall correct identification percentage higher than 88%. Also considering the effect of the cropping year, the cultivation region and the agricultural practices, high identification performances were recorded. The results support the application of the computer vision system not only for the identification, classification or grading purpose, but also to define the product traceability, in order to get a "market card" for landrace beans.


Bacchetta G.,University of Cagliari | Garcia P.E.,University of Vienna | Grillo O.,University of Cagliari | Mascia F.,University of Cagliari | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia
Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants | Year: 2011

Thirty-four seed morphometric and colorimetric features of the five taxa belonging to the Lavatera triloba aggregate were measured using an image analysis system. Data were statistically analysed using a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), which provided evidence to reassess the taxonomic position of some neglected or doubtful taxa. The results confirm the differentiation of the insular endemics L. agrigentina, L. triloba ssp. pallescens and L. triloba ssp. minoricensis. Moreover, the Sardinian populations of L. triloba ssp. triloba are clearly differentiated from their Iberian counterparts, but on the other hand, the seed morpho-colorimetric variation between L. triloba ssp. triloba and L. flava is not easy to interpret. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.


Grillo O.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Andres M.F.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias Csic | Moreno-Vazquez S.,Technical University of Madrid
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

Heterodera avenae and other cyst-producing nematode species are traditionally counted manually by visual inspection, a laborious and time consuming process. A method to detect and count cereal cyst nematodes based on image analysis techniques and statistical identification was designed and tested on H. avenae white females. Nematodes at the white female stage and free of soil particles were isolated from a contaminated wheat field. Known quantities of white females were mixed with different pre-treated background soil samples from non infested fields. Pre-treatment consisted of typical sieving and centrifugation procedures for white female extraction. Image analysis techniques were then used to detect, count and characterize white females in the mixtures. Over 96% of the H. avenae white females and substrate particles were correctly identified showing that a clear distinction can be drawn between the two groups. The results confirmed the validity of the proposed method to identify and count H. avenae females in backgrounds of different origins. This study establishes the basis for the design of a standardized method that is easily incorporated into a stand-alone system to facilitate the detection and quantification of nematode inoculum. This method can be applied to evaluate infestation level in crop fields and also to detect resistance/tolerance in breeding lines. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Muccilli V.,University of Catania | Lo Bianco M.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Cunsolo V.,University of Catania | Saletti R.,University of Catania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The primary structures of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of 5 Triticum durum Desf. cultivars (Simeto, Svevo, Duilio, Bronte, and SantAgata), largely cultivated in the south of Italy, and of 13 populations of the old spring Sicilian durum wheat landrace Timilia (Triticum durum Desf.) (accession nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, SG1, SG2, and SG3) were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography/nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS). Mr of the intact proteins determined by MALDI mass spectrometry showed that all the 13 populations of Timilia contained the same two HMW-GS with 75.2 kDa and 86.4 kDa, whereas the other durum wheat cultivars showed the presence of the expected HMW-GS 1By8 and 1Bx7 at 75.1 kDa and 83.1 kDa, respectively. By MALDI mass spectrometry of the tryptic digestion peptides of the isolated HMW-GS of Timilia, the 1Bx and 1By subunits were identified as the NCBInr Acc. No AAQ93629, and AAQ93633, respectively. Sequence verification for HMW-GS 1Bx and 1By both in Simeto and Timilia was obtained by MALDI mass mapping and HPLC/nESI-MSMS of the tryptic peptides. The Bx subunit of Timila presents a sequence similarity of 96% with respect to Simeto, with differences in the insertion of 3 peptides of 5, 9, and 15 amino acids, for a total insertion of 29 amino acids and 25 amino acid substitutions. These differences in the amino acidic sequence account for the determined δm of 3294 Da between the Mr of the 1Bx subunits in Timilia and Simeto. Sequence alignment between the two By subunits shows 10 amino acid substitutions and is consistent with the δm of 148 Da found in the MALDI mass spectra of the intact subunits. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Bacchetta G.,University of Cagliari | Fenu G.,University of Cagliari | Grillo O.,University of Cagliari | Mattana E.,University of Cagliari | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2011

Using a computer-aided imaging system, the seed morphometric and colorimetric features of Astragalus terraccianoi, A. tegulensis and A. thermensis - all belonging to Astragalus sect. Melanocercis - were measured and analysed. The results confirmed differences between A. terraccianoi and A. tegulensis, as well as the validity of A. tegulensis. Differences between the Corsican and Sardinian populations of A. terraccianoi were also found. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2011.


Licciardello F.,University of Catania | Rizzo V.,University of Catania | Grillo O.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Muratore G.,University of Catania
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2013

The present study addresses the influence of ageing on the bread-making performances of durum wheat semolina by bread image analysis. Bread loaves were produced from semolina samples stored in 4 different packaging materials for up to 150 days. Sampling and bread-making trials were performed every 15 days. Results showed that ageing does affect durum wheat semolina bread-making performances, highlighting that storage time, rather than the type of packaging material, is the main factor determining quality changes in the final bread samples. In particular, a change in the crust colour parameters and a reduction of the bread slice area and height by 20-35% were observed with increasing semolina storage time, along with a slight increase of crust % area. The change in farinographic parameters of dough suggests that the observed reduction of technological quality might be due to increased stiffness and reduced extensibility of gluten occurring in aged semolina. Unlike common wheat flours, which usually improve their technological features during ageing, durum wheat semolina is negatively affected in its quality by storage. The study highlights the importance of considering bread-making performances among the quality parameters to be taken into account for the shelf life evaluation of durum wheat semolina. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Orru M.,University of Cagliari | Grillo O.,University of Cagliari | Venora G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Bacchetta G.,University of Cagliari
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2012

Despite different breeding events, as well as the domestication phenomena which contributed to enrich the grape varietal heritage in Sardinia, many local varieties simply are the product of linguistic distorting due to the wide heterogeneity historic-cultural of the island. This phenomenon generated a great assortment of grape names, that, together with the huge real number of cultivars, is the cause of the incredible current grapevine Sardinian panorama. The goal of this article is to compare the published molecular data of 40 Sardinian autochthonous cultivars with the results achieved by the germplasm phenotypical characterization, on the basis of morpho-colorimetric features and Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs), measured by image analysis. Statistical classifiers were implemented to discriminate dissimilar seeds and carry out hypothetical synonymy groups to compare with those proposed on the basis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. This work represents the first trial to validate a morpho-colorimetric characterization method by direct comparison with molecular data, proving that the 113 measured features of the germplasm resulted adequate to achieve a clear discrimination among the synonymy groups. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Académie des sciences.


Iva S.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd. | Oscar G.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia | Marie B.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd. | Martin P.,Agritec Plant Research Ltd. | Gianfranco V.,Stazione Consorziale Sperimentale di Granicoltura per la Sicilia
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Linum usitatissimum L., as other fibre plants, has high technical and nutritive value connected to the seed fatty acid composition. The assessment of some seed aspects such as colour, size and shape is important in grading system as well as to characterize accessions of core collections. The data of 34 morphometric and colorimetric features of flax seeds belonging to four Czech varieties tested in 5 different Czech localities, were used to implement an identification and classification grading system, on the basis of two sample datasets: a training set of data to teach the classifier and a different test set of data to validate it. The achieved results suggested the possibility to discriminate both varieties and localities, and the stability of any studied flax seed lot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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