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Botu M.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Achim G.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Botu I.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Preda S.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Baciu A.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The program for breeding European plum from SCDP Valcea started 30 years ago and materialized with 3 new cultivars ('Vâlcean', 'Andreea' and 'Alutus') and 7 rootstocks ('Oteşani 8', 'Oteşani 11', 'Miroval', 'Rival', 'Oltval', 'Corval' and 'Pinval'). The genetic variability, with which the breeding program operates, is very rich due to the National Prunus Collection (750 accessions) and the 25000 intra and interspecific hybrids obtained. The main objectives taken into account for breeding new cultivars are linked with fruit quality (size over 40 g, uniform fruits, blue or red color skin, good taste, early or late ripening, etc.), resistance to diseases and especially PPV (Plum pox virus), high productivity and in the case of cultivars for processing, dry matter content over 20%. The breeding methods used are hybrid crossing selfing, mutagenesis and clonal selection. The cultivars and rootstocks obtained are propagated and grown in Romania and other countries. During the last few years, new valuable elites have been selected and are under evaluation (e.g., H 23-61-89, H 74-17-83, H 39-27-89, H 39-1-89). These elites have large fruits with pleasant taste and uniform fruits. In the future, new breeding methods and also genetic material with high variability will be taken into account. Source


Botu I.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Botu M.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Achim G.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Baciu A.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The European plum (Prunus domestica) and its sub species the Bullace (Prunus insititia) were the main traditional fruit trees cultivated in Romania. The size of the plum growing area diminished from 80% (beginning of the XX st Century) to less then 40% (after the year 2000). Romania was in the last century one of the top plum producers in the world, with recorded production between 962,000 t (1969) and 252,200 t (1995). During the last decade, plum production has varied from 250,000 to 400,000 t/year, which is below the national potential (the 40-year average is over 565,000 t). In the past, plum culture in Romania was mainly focused on autochthonous cultivars that were processed into alcohol (85% of the plum production). Fruits were processed through distillation into plum brandy called "tuicǎ" (spelled tzuica). In the last 40 years, plum culture has been switched to other fruit uses: fresh consumption, drying and processing into jam or marmalade, although alcohol production has remained quite high (35-45%). Major changes have occurred in the cultivar assortment as result of introduction of new bred Romanian and foreign cultivars for fresh consumption ('Centenar', 'Tuleu timpuriu', 'Carpatin', 'Minerva', 'Silvia', 'Record', etc) or for drying ('Andreea', 'Stanley'). The growing technique has improved from average yields of 2-3 t/ha to 12-15 t/ha in non-irrigated conditions. After 1990, plum culture in Romania suffered a major decrease in terms of production due to the return of the land from state and cooperative farms to the owners. Many orchards were pulled out, others were abandoned and the establishment of new plum orchards was very scattered. Nowadays, the total surface of plum orchards is less than 80,000 ha, most of them being old (20-25 years). The perspectives of plum culture have diminished, in this respect new plantings will be rare, the total orchard surface will decrease to about 50,000 ha and the fruits resulting will be used for fresh consumption, drying and very little of them for processing into brandy. Source


Achim G.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Botu I.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Botu M.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Preda S.,Statiunea de Cercetare Dezvoltare Pentru Pomicultura SCDP Valcea | Baciu A.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

At SCDP Valcea a rootstock breeding program started 30 years ago and its main targets were to obtain plum rootstocks suited to the soil conditions from the hill area of Romania (clay soils, thin, wet and with low natural fertility). The breeding program released 7 plum rootstocks for intensive culture. Two of the rootstocks originated in clonal selections carried out on local populations of Prunus domestica ('Oteşani 8') and Prunus insititia ('Oteşani 11') and 5 were obtained through different hybrid crosses ('Miroval', 'Rival', 'Oltval', 'Corval' and 'Pinval'). 'Oteşani 8' is a low vigor rootstock suited for plum orchards with 1000-1200 trees/ha. 'Oteşani 11', 'Rival', 'Oltval' have higher vigor then 'Oteşani 8' and are suited for densities of 500-700 trees/ha in plum orchards. 'Corval' and 'Pinval' have high vigor and can be used as rootstocks for plum orchards with 400-500 trees/ha. This large new rootstock assortment assures the possibility of establishing plum orchards in all the favorable ecological areas of Romania. Source

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