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Saez A.C.,UKNEQAS Parasitology | Manser M.M.,UKNEQAS Parasitology | Andrews N.,Statistics Unit | Chiodini P.L.,UKNEQAS Parasitology
Journal of Clinical Pathology

Aim: To compare the recovery of parasites in faecal samples using the Midi Parasep with ethyl acetate and Midi Parasep Solvent Free (SF) faecal parasite concentrators. Methods: 23 preserved and 11 fresh faecal samples were microscopically examined for the presence of parasites using the Midi arasep concentrator with ethyl acetate centrifuged for 1 and 3 min and the Midi Parasep SF concentrator. Results: The Midi Parasep SF faecal parasite system recovered significantly fewer ova and cysts and resulted in a notably larger deposit than the Midi Parasep concentrator with ethyl acetate. Conclusions: Parasites present in small numbers that would be detected using the Midi Parasep concentrator with ethyl acetate could be missed using the SF faecal parasite system. Source

Batstone M.D.,Maxillofacial Unit | Cosson J.,Maxillofacial Unit | Marquart L.,Statistics Unit | Acton C.,Maxillofacial Unit
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws is a complication of radiotherapy and controversy remains about the management of teeth in the field of radiotherapy. Platelet rich plasma has been advocated in multiple surgical sites, both bone and soft tissue, to promote healing and reduce complications. A randomized double blinded controlled trial was performed on patients receiving bilateral radiotherapy that affected the mandible who required pre treatment dental extractions. One side received platelet rich plasma and the other acted as a control. Twenty-two patients were recruited over 12 months and over a 5-year period following treatment three developed osteoradionecrosis (14%). Platelet rich plasma failed to show any benefit in the prevention of osteoradionecrosis. Nor was there any benefit in pain scores or mucosal healing on sides that were treated with platelet rich plasma. Platelet rich plasma fails to show a benefit in the prevention of osteoradionecrosis. The rate of osteoradionecrosis is high compared to other published series and the prophylactic removal of molar teeth should be questioned as a preventative measure. © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Source

Baiden F.,Malaria Group | Owusu-Agyei S.,Malaria Group | Okyere E.,Social Science Group | Tivura M.,Malaria Group | And 3 more authors.

Introduction: WHO now recommends test-based management of malaria (TBMM) across all age-groups. This implies artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) should be restricted to rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-positive cases. This is a departure from what caregivers in rural communities have been used to for many years. Methods: We conducted a survey among caregivers living close to 32 health centres in six districts in rural Ghana and used logistic regression to explore factors likely to influence caregiver acceptability of RDT based case management and concern about the denial of ACT on account of negative RDT results. Focus group discussions were conducted to explain the quantitative findings and to elicit further factors. Results: A total of 3047 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly all (98%) reported a preference for TBMM over presumptive treatment. Caregivers who preferred TBMM were less likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their test-negative children (O.R. 0.57, 95%C.I. 0.33-0.98). Compared with caregivers who had never secured national health insurance cover, caregivers who had valid (adjusted O.R. 1.30, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) or expired (adjusted O.R. 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.73) insurance cover were more likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their RDT-negative children. Major factors that promote TBMM acceptability include the perception that a blood test at health centre level represents improvement in the quality of care, leads to improvement in treatment outcomes, and offers opportunity for better communication between health workers and caregivers. Acceptability is also enhanced by engaging caregivers in the procedures of the test. Apprehensions about negative health worker attitude could however undermine acceptance. Conclusion: Test (RDT)-based management of malaria in under-five children is likely to be acceptable to caregivers in rural Ghana. The quality of caregiver-health worker interaction needs to be improved if acceptability is to be sustained. © 2012 Baiden et al. Source

Uzoh F.C.C.,Pacific Southwest Research Station | Mori S.R.,Statistics Unit
Forest Ecology and Management

A critical component of a growth and yield simulator is an estimate of mortality rates. The mortality models presented here are developed from long-term permanent plots in provinces from throughout the geographic range of ponderosa pine in the United States extending from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Pacific Coast. The study had two objectives: estimation of the probability of a tree survival for the next 5. years and the probability of a tree surviving longer than a given time period (survival trend) for a given set of covariates. The probability of a tree surviving for the next 5. years was estimated using a logistic model regressed on 18 covariates measured 5. years before the last measurement period with 15 smoothing variables (S1-S15) for spatial effects of latitude and longitude surface. The fitted model showed that the probability of survival increased with increasing diameter at breast height (DBH), DBH periodic annual increment (PAIDBH) and increasing plot basal area/number of trees per hectare (PBAH/TPH), and decreased with increasing average of the 5 tallest trees in the plot (AVGHT5) when other selected covariates were included in the model. The probability of a tree surviving longer than a given time period was estimated by fitting the Cox Proportional Hazard model to the last observed survival period regressed on 13 covariates measured at the first measurement period. This probability also increased with increasing DBH and PAIDBH, and decreased with increasing AVGHT5. The Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and graphs of partial residuals were used in the selection of covariates included in the models. © 2012. Source

Kanieff M.,Statistics Unit
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin

We present the results of a survey conducted in the context of the project European Monitoring of Excess Mortality for Public Health Action (EuroMOMO), which is being conducted to develop a routine public health mortality monitoring system for the timely detection of excess deaths related to public health threats in Europe. The survey was conducted in 32 European countries using two questionnaires on: i) the existing and planned mortality monitoring systems, and ii) the routine collection of mortality data. Nine existing mortality monitoring systems were identified in seven countries (Belgium, Germany, France (two systems), Italy (two systems), Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland), as well as several systems that were in a pilot or planning state. Each system is described in detail. The results will be used for the subsequent phases of EuroMOMO, in particular for identifying the minimum requirements for the planned European system and for selecting countries to be included in the project's pilot phase. Source

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