Stockholm, Sweden
Stockholm, Sweden

Statistics Sweden is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden. National statistics in Sweden date back to 1686 when the parishes of the Church of Sweden were ordered to start keeping records on the population. SCB's predecessor, the Office of Tables , was set up in 1749, and the current name was adopted in 1858.As of 2008, the agency had approximately 1,400 employees. The offices of the agency are located in Stockholm and Örebro. Statistics Sweden publishes the Journal of Official Statistics. Wikipedia.


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News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology indicates that being born either too early or too late may have a long-term effect on children's academic performance. The risk of cognitive and developmental problems in premature infants is well-established, but preventing preterm birth is limited clinically. By contrast, less is known about what happens to cognitive performance in children born post-term, or about the influence of birth weight variations within post-term populations, where there may be more scope for intervention. This study details the relationship between gestational age at birth and school grades at age 16 across the full range of pregnancy duration (22 to 45 completed weeks), by weight-for-gestational age, focusing on extremely pre- and post-term births and taking account of possible effects within and between families. Using the whole Swedish population, over 2 million live births between 1973 and 1994 were linked to the National School Register and other registers from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare. Academic performance was measured by the final grade achieved on completing secondary education at 16. Between 1973 and 1994, 9.4% of Swedish births were post-term and 4.6% preterm. Late preterm children (3.6%) were more likely to have been exposed to maternal medical risk or birth complications. Grade averages were lower for pre- and post-term children than for term-counterparts, and were lowest in children showing evidence of poor fetal growth, irrespective of gestational age. The adjusted grades of extremely preterm children (at 24 completed weeks) were lower by 0.43 standard deviations (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.49) corresponding with a 21 point reduction (19 to 24) on a 240-point scale, although they had improved over time. The grades of extremely post-term children (at 45 completed weeks) were lower by 0.15 SD (0.13 to 0.17), corresponding with an 8 point reduction (7 to 9). Grades of pre- and post-term children remained lower than those of term counterparts when considering spontaneous deliveries, uncomplicated unassisted deliveries, children with normal Apgar, or without congenital anomalies. However, induced post-term deliveries were not associated with reduced school performance. Among matched siblings, within-family effects were weaker, particularly in the preterm sibling cohort and less so in post-term children. This attenuation of effect suggests confounding by unmeasured familial traits. Residual within-family associations suggested there may also be direct causal links between birth at early or late GA and school-leaving age academic performance. This is the first study to detail associations between pregnancy duration and school performance across the full range of pregnancy. Irrespective of gestational age at birth, there was an independent effect of fetal growth restriction on later school performance which has persisted over time. There may be shared familial traits which influence risk of birth at non-optimal gestational age and also affect the academic performance of those born early or late. These may include modifiable risk factors such as poor maternal diet, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal obesity. "Less favorable outcomes of post-term infants with poor fetal growth suggest that placental insufficiency may become particularly toxic to neurodevelopment the longer a pregnancy endures," said lead author Dr Hein Heuvelman. The paper "Gestational age at birth and academic performance: a population-based cohort study" is available at: http://ije. Dr Hein Heuvelman Centre for Women's Mental Health, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Institute of Brain Behaviour and Mental Health University of Manchester 3rd floor Jean McFarlane building, Oxford Road, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK Tel: +44 74 72 21 61 53 Email: heinheuvelman2@gmail.com


Perninge M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Lindskog F.,Statistics Sweden | Soder L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2012

Power system security analysis is often strongly tied with contingency analysis. To improve Monte Carlo simulation, many different contingency selection techniques have been proposed in the literature. However, with the introduction of more variable generation sources such as wind power and due to fast changing loads, power system security analysis will also have to incorporate sudden changes in injected powers that are not due to generation outages. In this paper, we use importance sampling for injected-power simulation to estimate the probability of system failure given a power system grid state. A comparison to standard crude Monte Carlo simulation is also performed in a numerical example and indicates a major increase in simulation efficiency when using the importance sampling technique proposed in the paper. © 2006 IEEE.


Burman E.,University College London | Hansbo P.,Jönköping University College | Larson M.G.,Statistics Sweden
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2015

We consider solving the Laplace-Beltrami problem on a smooth two dimensional surface embedded into a three dimensional space meshed with tetrahedra. The mesh does not respect the surface and thus the surface cuts through the elements. We consider a Galerkin method based on using the restrictions of continuous piecewise linears defined on the tetrahedra to the surface as trial and test functions.The resulting discrete method may be severely ill-conditioned, and the main purpose of this paper is to suggest a remedy for this problem based on adding a consistent stabilization term to the original bilinear form. We show optimal estimates for the condition number of the stabilized method independent of the location of the surface. We also prove optimal a priori error estimates for the stabilized method. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Abbe E.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Barron A.,Statistics Sweden
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings | Year: 2011

This paper investigates polar coding schemes achieving capacity for the AWGN channel. The approaches using a multiple access channel with a large number of binary-input users and a single-user channel with a large prime-cardinality input are compared with respect to complexity attributes. The problem of finding discrete approximations to the Gaussian input is then investigated, and it is shown that a quantile quantizer achieves a gap to capacity which decreases like 1/q (where q is the number of constellation points), improving on the 1/log(q) decay achieved with a binomial (central limit theorem) quantizer. © 2011 IEEE.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A new study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology indicates that being born either too early or too late may have a long-term effect on children's academic performance. The risk of cognitive and developmental problems in premature infants is well-established, but preventing preterm birth is limited clinically. By contrast, less is known about what happens to cognitive performance in children born post-term, or about the influence of birth weight variations within post-term populations, where there may be more scope for intervention. This study details the relationship between gestational age at birth and school grades at age 16 across the full range of pregnancy duration (22 to 45 completed weeks), by weight-for-gestational age, focusing on extremely pre- and post-term births and taking account of possible effects within and between families. Using the whole Swedish population, over 2 million live births between 1973 and 1994 were linked to the National School Register and other registers from Statistics Sweden and the National Board of Health and Welfare. Academic performance was measured by the final grade achieved on completing secondary education at 16. Between 1973 and 1994, 9.4% of Swedish births were post-term and 4.6% preterm. Late preterm children (3.6%) were more likely to have been exposed to maternal medical risk or birth complications. Grade averages were lower for pre- and post-term children than for term-counterparts, and were lowest in children showing evidence of poor fetal growth, irrespective of gestational age. The adjusted grades of extremely preterm children (at 24 completed weeks) were lower by 0.43 standard deviations (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.49) corresponding with a 21 point reduction (19 to 24) on a 240-point scale, although they had improved over time. The grades of extremely post-term children (at 45 completed weeks) were lower by 0.15 SD (0.13 to 0.17), corresponding with an 8 point reduction (7 to 9). Grades of pre- and post-term children remained lower than those of term counterparts when considering spontaneous deliveries, uncomplicated unassisted deliveries, children with normal Apgar, or without congenital anomalies. However, induced post-term deliveries were not associated with reduced school performance. Among matched siblings, within-family effects were weaker, particularly in the preterm sibling cohort and less so in post-term children. This attenuation of effect suggests confounding by unmeasured familial traits. Residual within-family associations suggested there may also be direct causal links between birth at early or late GA and school-leaving age academic performance. This is the first study to detail associations between pregnancy duration and school performance across the full range of pregnancy. Irrespective of gestational age at birth, there was an independent effect of fetal growth restriction on later school performance which has persisted over time. There may be shared familial traits which influence risk of birth at non-optimal gestational age and also affect the academic performance of those born early or late. These may include modifiable risk factors such as poor maternal diet, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal obesity. "Less favorable outcomes of post-term infants with poor fetal growth suggest that placental insufficiency may become particularly toxic to neurodevelopment the longer a pregnancy endures," said lead author Dr Hein Heuvelman.


Rova K.,Karolinska University Hospital | Passmark H.,Statistics Sweden | Lindqvist P.G.,Karolinska University Hospital
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the incidence and the increase in risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to IVF and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in successful cycles. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Population based. Patient(s): All deliveries (n = 964,532) in Sweden during a 10-year period (1999-2008). Intervention(s): Comparison of VTEs among those with and without IVF. The National Birth Registry was cross-matched with both the National Discharge Registry and the National IVF Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Risk of first trimester VTE. Result(s): The incidence of first-trimester VTE in relation to IVF was 0.2%, representing a 10-fold increase as compared with the background population. The 6% to 7% of IVF pregnancies that were complicated by OHSS showed a 100-fold increased risk of VTE, as opposed to the fivefold increased risk seen in the absence of OHSS. The VTEs in conjunction with IVF were diagnosed at a mean gestational age of 62 days; there was no increased risk of VTE related to frozen embryo replacement cycles or IVF after the first trimester. Conclusion(s): Treating women with OHSS with low-molecular-weight heparin thromboprophylaxis during the first trimester and treating cases at high-risk for OHSS with frozen embryo replacement is likely to lower the risk of VTE.


Kallen B.,Lund University | Olausson P.O.,Statistics Sweden
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Objective To describe a large study on pregnancy outcome after vaccination against H1N1 during the 2009/10 pandemic. Design A cohort study of women vaccinated with Pandemrix® during pregnancy. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used for the analysis. Information on vaccination and pregnancy week when vaccination was made was obtained from antenatal care documents. Population All women who gave birth during 2009 and 2010 in Sweden. Methods Characteristics of the vaccinated women and their delivery outcome were compared with two groups of women: women without a known vaccination who gave birth in 2009/10 after 1 October 2009, and women who gave birth during 2009 before 1 October. Adjustment was made for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking habits and body mass index. Outcome measures Stillbirth, congenital malformations, preterm birth, low birthweight, small for gestational age. Results A total of 18 612 vaccinated women having 18 844 infants were studied. The risk for stillbirth, preterm birth and low birthweight was lower than in the comparison groups whereas the risk for small for gestational age and a congenital malformation (after vaccination during the first trimester) did not differ from the comparison groups. No clear-cut explanation to the 'protective' effect of vaccination was found. Conclusions Vaccination during pregnancy with Pandemrix® appeared to have no ill effects on the pregnancy. On the contrary, the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight was lower than expected, which agrees with some previous results. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.


Nilsson P.,Statistics Sweden
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

Natural amenities play an important role in explaining intra-regional economic growth, because they increase the competition between places and the relative demand for housing. This paper shows that these relationships are strongly location-specific, such that the magnitude and the direction, of value assessments vary across the urban surface. The analysis in this study addresses spatial heterogeneity in the valuations of preserved open space amenities using Swedish house price data. The results show that marginal valuations of open space amenities are high in locations that are characterised by high population and housing densities and low or insignificant in areas where undeveloped lands are abundant, thus, supporting the hypothesis that a greater competition for those, locational attributes that are in high demand, yet locally scarce, results in higher marginal prices. © 2013.


Brostrom G.,Statistics Sweden | Holmberg H.,Statistics Sweden
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

The statistical analysis of mixed effects models for binary and count data is investigated. In the statistical computing environment R, there are a few packages that estimate models of this kind. The package lme4 is a de facto standard for mixed effects models. The package glmmML allows non-normal distributions in the specification of random intercepts. It also allows for the estimation of a fixed effects model, assuming that all cluster intercepts are distinct fixed parameters; moreover, a bootstrapping technique is implemented to replace asymptotic analysis. The random intercepts model is fitted using a maximum likelihood estimator with adaptive GaussHermite and Laplace quadrature approximations of the likelihood function. The fixed effects model is fitted through a profiling approach, which is necessary when the number of clusters is large. In a simulation study, the two approaches are compared. The fixed effects model has severe bias when the mixed effects variance is positive and the number of clusters is large. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Haggstrom J.,Statistics Sweden
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

A data-driven bandwidth selection method for backfitting estimation of semiparametric additive models, when the parametric part is of main interest, is proposed. The proposed method is a double smoothing estimator of the mean-squared error of the backfitting estimator of the parametric terms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared with existing bandwidth selectors by means of a simulation study. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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