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Oslo, Norway

Halvorsen B.,Statistics Norway
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2012

Increased household recycling is a policy goal in many countries. Household recycling is, to a large extent, based on voluntary efforts. It is thus interesting to understand the mechanisms behind household voluntary contributions to recycling, and how they are affected by various policy measures. In this study, we describe the differences in factors affecting household recycling activities across 10 OECD countries. We find that the most important motivations for household recycling are the belief that recycling is good for the environment and that recycling is a civic duty. Increasing the supply of recycling services has a significant effect on household recycling, and door-to-door collection and drop-off centres are the two most effective methods in this respect. Furthermore, the results indicate that the design of monetary incentives may be important to avoid crowding out of morally motivated voluntary contributions, illustrated by the Korean success with volume-based fees. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Holtsmark B.,Statistics Norway
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

Owing to the extensive critique of food-crop-based biofuels, attention has turned toward second-generation wood-based biofuels. A question is therefore whether timber taken from the vast boreal forests on an increasing scale should serve as a source of wood-based biofuels and whether this will be effective climate policy. In a typical boreal forest, it takes 70-120 years before a stand of trees is mature. When this time lag and the dynamics of boreal forests more generally are taken into account, it follows that a high level of harvest means that the carbon stock in the forest stabilizes at a lower level. Therefore, wood harvesting is not a carbon-neutral activity. Through model simulations, it is estimated that an increased harvest of a boreal forest will create a biofuel carbon debt that takes 190-340 years to repay. The length of the payback time is sensitive to the type of fossil fuels that wood energy replaces © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Storrosten H.B.,Statistics Norway
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2014

Technological improvements have proven essential in mitigating environmental problems such as climate change, depletion of the ozone layer and acid rain. While it is well-known that price- and quantity-based regulatory instruments provide different investment levels, the effects on the choice between different technologies have received scant attention. This paper expands on the prices versus quantities literature by investigating firms' technology choice in the face of demand and supply side uncertainty. I show that the regulator can not design tradable emissions permits and an emissions tax such that the two regimes are equivalent, even in terms of expected values. Moreover, a tax encourages the most flexible abatement technology if and only if stochastic costs and the equilibrium permit price have sufficiently strong positive covariance, compared with the variance in consumer demand for the good produced. Finally, the firms' technology choices are socially optimal under tradable emissions permits, but not under an emissions tax. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Holtsmark B.,Statistics Norway
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2013

In a recent contribution, Cherubini et al. (2011a) analyzed numerically the effect on atmospheric carbon of a single-harvest event in a boreal forest with subsequent combustion of the extracted biomass. Those authors found that a period of increased atmospheric carbon was followed by a period of reduced atmospheric carbon, while harvest was found to be carbon neutral in the long term. First, this article shows that their results are sensitive to the choice of baseline scenario. A more realistic baseline scenario was considered here, where the stand's growth and carbon capture continue in the case of no harvest. This leads to a significantly longer period with increased atmospheric carbon than was found in Cherubini et al. (2011a). Second, the single-harvest approach is supplemented with an analysis of a series of repeated harvests to make the analysis relevant for a discussion of the consequences of the use of biomass for energy purposes, now and in the future. This changes the results fundamentally. It is found that extracting biomass from boreal forests on a permanent basis leads to permanently increased atmospheric carbon concentration when compared with the no-harvest scenario. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Finnvold J.E.,Statistics Norway
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper explores the experiences of parents of asthmatic children in the period leading up to their child receiving a formal medical diagnosis. To what extent did the parents face difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis? How did they describe their encounters with the healthcare professionals? In particular, did parents portray themselves as passive and dominated or active and participating during the prediagnosis phase? In-depth interviews with individuals and participants in a focus group exposed the prediagnosis phase as a distinct and memorable phase of the disease, often recalled as a period of frustration and uncertainty. Results show that instead of accepting the authority of the professional, parents eventually acquire knowledge elsewhere about the diagnosis and the healthcare system, and act according to that knowledge. As a fundamental uncertainty appears involved in the diagnostic process, parents dealing with this uncertainty use a number of strategies to gain control of the process of alleviating their child's disease. The paper discusses the status of the information that the researcher obtained from parents. Lay narratives cannot be treated as simple reports of an external reality. As the parental role is rooted in normative conceptions about what constitutes 'responsible parenthood', information given to the observer may therefore be influenced by the informants' concern with their appearance as moral persons or adequate parents. Although a research strategy based on one-sided interviews has limitations, using parents as a source of information offers a rare glimpse into the realities of patient-physician encounters. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science. Source

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