Statistics Netherlands CBS

The Hague, Netherlands

Statistics Netherlands CBS

The Hague, Netherlands
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Di Maio F.,Technical University of Delft | Rem P.C.,Technical University of Delft | Balde K.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Polder M.,Statistics Netherlands CBS
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2017

This paper proposes a new value-based indicator to assess the performance of actors in the supply chain in terms of resource efficiency and circular economy. Most of the methodologies developed so far measure resource efficiency on the basis of the environmental burden of the resource relative to the value of output. However, the key point of circular economy is keeping resources within the economy when products no longer serve their functions so that materials can be used again and therefore generate more value. The unit in which resource efficiency and circular economy are measured greatly affects both the ease of acceptance by policymakers and the direction in which green policy will change our society. Whereas the most common approaches to assessing resource efficiency and circular economy use mass, in this paper we advocate measuring both resource efficiency and circular economy in terms of the market value of ‘stressed’ resources, since this value incorporates the elements of scarcity versus competition as well as taxes representing urgent social and environmental externalities. The market value of resources is well-documented and responds automatically to the locality and time at which resources are used. Applying this unit, circularity is defined as the percentage of the value of stressed resources incorporated in a service or product that is returned after its end-of-life. Resource efficiency is the ratio of added product value divided by the value of stressed resources used in production or a process thereof. It is argued that precisely the concept of a free market, in which materials, parts and components are exchanged purely on the basis of their functionality and cost, allows the resource efficiency of a process (KPI for industry and governance) to be distinguished from the resource efficiency of a product (KPI for consumers and governance). Using standard industry data from Statistics Netherlands, the resource efficiency of several Dutch industries were evaluated using the new methodology and compared with a traditional mass-based approach. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Wallisdevries M.F.,De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Wallisdevries M.F.,Wageningen University | Van Swaay C.A.M.,De Vlinderstichting Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Plate C.L.,Statistics Netherlands CBS
Current Zoology | Year: 2012

Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects, even common butterfly species. Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor. Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality. Yet, data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking. In this study, we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance. We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods: 1994-1995 and 2007-2008. The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants, such as thistles. The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists. We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources. © 2012 Current Zoology.


Velthof G.L.,Wageningen University | van Bruggen C.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Groenestein C.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | de Haan B.J.,PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Agriculture is the major source of ammonia (NH3). Methodologies are needed to quantify national NH3 emissions and to identify the most effective options to mitigate NH3 emissions. Generally, NH3 emissions from agriculture are quantified using a nitrogen (N) flow approach, in which the NH3 emission is calculated from the N flows and NH3 emission factors. Because of the direct dependency between NH3 volatilization and Total Ammoniacal N (TAN; ammonium-N + N compounds readily broken down to ammonium) an approach based on TAN is preferred to calculate NH3 emission instead of an approach based on total N. A TAN-based NH3-inventory model was developed, called NEMA (National Emission Model for Ammonia). The total N excretion and the fraction of TAN in the excreted N are calculated from the feed composition and N digestibility of the components. TAN-based emission factors were derived or updated for housing systems, manure storage outside housing, manure application techniques, N fertilizer types, and grazing. The NEMA results show that the total NH3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands in 2009 was 88.8 Gg NH3-N, of which 50% from housing, 37% from manure application, 9% from mineral N fertilizer, 3% from outside manure storage, and 1% from grazing. Cattle farming was the dominant source of NH3 in the Netherlands (about 50% of the total NH3 emission). The NH3 emission expressed as percentage of the excreted N was 22% of the excreted N for poultry, 20% for pigs, 15% for cattle, and 12% for other livestock, which is mainly related to differences in emissions from housing systems. The calculated ammonia emission was most sensitive to changes in the fraction of TAN in the excreted manure and to the emission factor of manure application. From 2011, NEMA will be used as official methodology to calculate the national NH3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


van Gaalen R.I.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Dykstra P.A.,Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NIDI | Komter A.E.,University Utrecht
Journal of Aging Studies | Year: 2010

We challenge the common idea that solidarity has positive, whereas conflict has negative implications, by investigating intergenerational ambivalence - defined as the co-occurrence of solidarity and conflict - and relationship quality. We use representative data on non-coresident adult children and parents with high levels of contact (weekly or more; N = 2,694 dyads). Results show that over half of high contact parent-child ties can be characterized as ambivalent and of high-quality. The likelihood of negative instead of positive ambivalent ties is greater if adult children have few exit options because they are socially isolated or have a small number of siblings. Ties between fathers and sons, and those between caring daughters and aging parents also have a high probability of belonging to the negative ambivalent type. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Tennekes M.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | De Jonge E.,Statistics Netherlands CBS
IMAGAPP and IVAPP 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Imaging Theory and Applications and International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

Statistics Netherlands produces statistics about the economic activity in The Netherlands. These statistics are based on survey data and administrative sources, such as value added tax (VAT). A recent trend in the production of official statistics is to use a top-down analysis, which means that analysts first analyze high level aggregated data, and then zoom in on a more detailed level when necessary. In this paper, we discuss how treemap visualizations can be used for this top-down approach. We use comparison treemaps and density treemaps. Finally, we introduce a method to visualize confidence intervals in treemaps.


Boerema A.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Cuijpers P.,VU University Amsterdam | Beekman A.T.F.,VU University Amsterdam | Hellenthal A.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | And 2 more authors.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Purpose: There is increasing pressure on mental health providers to reduce the duration of treatments, while retaining level of quality and effectiveness. The risk is that the population is underserved and therefore needs new treatment episodes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether duration of treatment and return into mental health care were related. Methods: This study examined Dutch patients with an initial treatment episode in 2009 or 2010 in specialized mental health settings for depressive disorder (N = 85,754). Follow-up data about treatment episodes were available up until 2013. The data set included demographic (age, gender), and clinical factors (comorbidity with other DSM-IV Axis; scores on the ‘Global Assessment of Functioning’). Cox regression analyses were used to assess whether duration of treatment and relapse into mental health care were related. Results: The majority of patients did not return into mental health care (86 %). Patients with a shorter duration of treatment (5–250 min; 251–500 min and 751–1000 min) were slightly more likely to return (reference group: >1000 min) (HR 1.19 95 % CI 1.13–1.26; HR 1.11 95 % CI 1.06–1.17; HR 1.18 95 % CI 1.11–1.25), adjusted for demographic and clinical variables. Conclusions: The results suggest that a longer duration of treatment may prevent return into mental health care in some groups. However, because of the design of the study, no causal inference can be drawn. Further research, preferably in a RCT, is needed to determine whether the trend towards lower intensity treatments is associated with repeated mental health care use. © 2016 The Author(s)


Boerema A.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Kleiboer A.,VU University Amsterdam | Beekman A.T.F.,VU University Amsterdam | van Zoonen K.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | And 2 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Background: Although evidence-based and effective treatments are available for people with depression, a substantial number does not seek or receive help. Therefore, it is important to gain a better understanding of the reasons why people do or do not seek help. This study examined what predisposing and need factors are associated with help-seeking among people with major depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 102 subjects with major depression. Respondents were recruited from the general population in collaboration with three Municipal Health Services (GGD) across different regions in the Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: being aged 18 years or older, a high score on a screening instrument for depression (K10 > 20), and a diagnosis of major depression established through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results: Of the total sample, 65 % (n = 66) had received help in the past six months. Results showed that respondents with a longer duration of symptoms and those with lower personal stigma were more likely to seek help. Other determinants were not significantly related to help-seeking. Conclusions: Longer duration of symptoms was found to be an important determinant of help-seeking among people with depression. It is concerning that stigma was related to less help-seeking. Knowledge and understanding of depression should be promoted in society, hopefully leading to reduced stigma and increased help-seeking. © 2016 Boerema et al.


Delahaye R.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Hoekstra R.,Statistics Netherlands CBS | Nootenboom L.,Statistics Netherlands CBS
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2011

Our knowledge of the relationship between the economy and the environment has increased significantly over recent decades. One of the areas in which this is most apparent is the area of environmental accounting, where environmental data is presented according to national accounting principles. These accounts provide consistent, complete and detailed information for understanding environmental-economic interdependencies. One of the modules of these accounts is the waste accounts which record the origin and destination of waste materials. The first part of this paper discusses the Dutch waste accounts and their relation with economic indicators. In the second part a number of applications, which are based on the input-output model, are applied to these accounts. This section includes a novel structural decomposition analysis which quantifies the underlying driving forces of changes in total waste and landfilled waste between 1995 and 2004. The results show that the total amount of waste is mainly driven by economic growth (positive effect) and the direct export of waste (negative effect). The models also show that the construction sector has played a very important part in the reduction of waste. Furthermore, the decrease in the amount of landfilled waste, which is caused by Dutch regulations, has led to a large shift towards recycling and to a lesser degree incineration. Finally, the calculations for the 'environmental trade balance' for waste show that the waste-contents of exports exceed that of imports. This paper shows that the waste accounts have many analytical and policy-relevant applications. © The Author(s) 2011.


PubMed | Statistics Netherlands CBS, VU University Amsterdam and GGD Amsterdam
Type: | Journal: BMC psychiatry | Year: 2016

Although evidence-based and effective treatments are available for people with depression, a substantial number does not seek or receive help. Therefore, it is important to gain a better understanding of the reasons why people do or do not seek help. This study examined what predisposing and need factors are associated with help-seeking among people with major depression.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 102 subjects with major depression. Respondents were recruited from the general population in collaboration with three Municipal Health Services (GGD) across different regions in the Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: being aged 18 years or older, a high score on a screening instrument for depression (K10 > 20), and a diagnosis of major depression established through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1).Of the total sample, 65 % (n = 66) had received help in the past six months. Results showed that respondents with a longer duration of symptoms and those with lower personal stigma were more likely to seek help. Other determinants were not significantly related to help-seeking.Longer duration of symptoms was found to be an important determinant of help-seeking among people with depression. It is concerning that stigma was related to less help-seeking. Knowledge and understanding of depression should be promoted in society, hopefully leading to reduced stigma and increased help-seeking.


PubMed | Australian National University, Statistics Netherlands CBS and VU University Amsterdam
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Research on depression stigma is needed to gain more insight into the underlying construct and to reduce the level of stigma in the community. However, few validated measurements of depression stigma are available in the Netherlands. Therefore, this study first sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Second, we examined which demographic (gender, age, education, partner status) and other variables (anxiety and knowledge of depression) are associated with personal and perceived stigma within these samples.The study population consisted of an adult convenience sample (n = 253) (study 1) and a community adult sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n = 264) (study 2). Factor structure, internal consistency, and validity were assessed. The associations between stigma, demographic variables and anxiety level were examined with regression analyses.Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal stigma scale. Internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbachs alpha = .70 (study 1) and .77 (study 2)). The results regarding the perceived stigma scale revealed no clear factor structure. Regression analyses showed that personal stigma was higher in younger people, those with no experience with depression, and those with lower education.This study established the validity and internal consistency of the DSS personal scale in the Netherlands, in a community sample and in people with elevated depressive symptoms. However, additional research is needed to examine the factor structure of the DSS perceived scale and its use in other samples.

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