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Walter Rasugu Omariba D.,Statistics Canada
Health and Place | Year: 2010

This study drew on three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and the 2001 Census to examine between-neighbourhood variation in positive and negative self-rated health and the relative effect of individual and neighbourhood characteristics on self-rated health among Canadian adults aged ≥65. Multilevel logistic regression results showed that there was modest, but significant between-neighbourhood variation in self-rated health. Neighbourhood factors including income, education, and percentage of people aged ≥65, and visible minority accounted for about 50% and 30% of the neighbourhood variation in negative and positive self-rated health, respectively. Relative to neighbourhood-level characteristics, individual characteristics had a stronger effect on self-rated health with involvement in physical activity, alcohol consumption, sense of community belonging, income, and education being the most important. Although the findings suggest that neighbourhood effects on self-rated health are modest and that individual-level factors are relatively more important determinants of health, research concern for contextual influences on health should continue. © 2010.

Garriguet D.,Statistics Canada
Health Reports | Year: 2011

Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that predisposes to fractures. Sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for prevention and treatment. Data and methods: Based on 28,406 respondents aged 50 or older to the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Healthy Aging, the population who reported being diagnosed with osteoporosis is profiled. Analysis of calcium and vitamin D intake is based on 10,879 respondents aged 50 or older to the 2004 CCHS-Nutrition. Frequencies, averages and cross-tabulations were produced to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed osteoporosis, dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, the use of supplements, and total calcium and vitamin D intake. Associations between a diagnosis of osteoporosis and socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle factors were examined with multiple logistic regression. Results: In 2009, 19.2% of women and 3.4% of men aged 50 or older reported having been diagnosed with osteoporosis; the 2004 rates were similar. Age, sex and household income were associated with the probability of reporting osteoporosis. In 2004, based on dietary and supplement intake, 45% to 69% of the population aged 50 or older had inadequate intake of calcium, and 54% to 66% had inadequate intake of vitamin D. Interpretation: A large percentage of people aged 50 or older, particularly women, have osteoporosis. The prevalence of inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is relatively high.

Ng E.,Statistics Canada
Health Reports | Year: 2011

According to the 2006 Census, almost 20% of the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

Brown W.M.,Statistics Canada | Scott D.M.,McMaster University
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2012

A growing literature has found a positive association between human capital and long-run employment growth across cities. These studies have increased interest in understanding the location choices of university degree holders, a group often used as a proxy measure of human capital. Based on data from the 2001 Canadian Census of Population, this paper investigates determinants of the location choices of degree and nondegree holders. With a multinomial logit model, it tests a series of hypotheses about the differential effects of thick labor markets and amenities on the location choice of these groups across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in Canada. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wilkins K.,Statistics Canada
Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la santé / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la santé | Year: 2012

In Canada, as elsewhere, control of hypertension in older persons who are using antihypertensive medication is more likely in men than in women. The reasons for the observed difference are not known. Data are from cycle 1 of the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS includes a comprehensive questionnaire, automated blood pressure (BP) measures, and a variety of biological and anthropometric assessments. Frequencies, means, cross-tabulations and multivariate models were produced to study differences between the sexes in hypertension control in a weighted sample representative of the household population aged 60 to 79. The prevalence of hypertension was nearly equal among older men (60%) and women (59%), and the percentage of those with hypertension who were receiving pharmaceutical treatment was not statistically different (84% and 89%, respectively). However, despite current treatment, hypertension was uncontrolled in a substantially higher percentage of women (30%) than men (17%). The difference persisted when age, socio-economic status, co-morbidity, category of medication, anthropometry, and other correlates of hypertension were taken into account. The factors considered in the analysis do not account for the advantage to older men in hypertension control. The findings underscore the importance of efforts to control blood pressure in older women.

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