Statistical Science

Raritan, NJ, United States

Statistical Science

Raritan, NJ, United States
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Gregg K.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Harberts E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Gardner F.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Pelletier M.R.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 7 more authors.
mBio | Year: 2017

Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (mono-phosphoryl lipid A) are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccha-ride (LOS), altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC) as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A. BECC removes endogenous or introduces exogenous lipid A-modifying enzymes to bacteria, effectively reprogramming the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. In this study, BECC is applied within an avirulent strain of Yersinia pestis to develop structurally distinct LOS molecules that elicit differential Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Using reporter cell lines that measure NF-κB activation, BECC-derived molecules were screened for the ability to induce a lower proinflammatory response than Escherichia coli LOS. Their structures exhibit varied, dose-dependent, TLR4-driven NF-κB activation with both human and mouse TLR4 complexes. Additional cytokine secretion screening identified molecules that induce levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) comparable to the levels induced by phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide (PHAD). The lead candidates demonstrated potent immunostimulation in mouse splenocytes, human primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). This newly described system allows directed programming of lipid A synthesis and has the potential to generate a diverse array of TLR4 agonist candidates. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop effective vaccines against infectious diseases that continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Making effective vaccines requires selecting an adjuvant to strengthen an appropriate and protective immune response. This work describes a practical method, bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC), for generating functionally diverse molecules for adjuvant use. These molecules were analyzed in cell culture for their ability to initiate immune stimulatory activity. Several of the assays described herein show promising in vitro cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression results, suggesting that the BECC molecules may be useful in future vaccine preparations. © 2017 Gregg et al.


Hensel M.T.,Vaccine Platform Group | Marshall J.D.,Vaccine Platform Group | Dorwart M.R.,Vaccine Protein Biochemistry Group | Dorwart M.R.,Roche Holding AG | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2017

Several prophylactic vaccines targeting herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) have failed in the clinic to demonstrate sustained depression of viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the NAb targets gD and gB and the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this vaccine to a whole-inactivated-virus vaccine (formaldehyde-inactivated HSV-2 [FI-HSV-2]). We evaluated different formulations in combination with several Th1-inducing Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in vivo. In mice, the TLR9 agonist cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide formulated in a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion promoted most robust, functional HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses and high titers of neutralizing antibodies, demonstrating its superiority to vaccines adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-alum. We further established that FI-HSV-2 alone or in combination with adjuvants as well as adjuvanted subunit vaccines were successful in the induction of NAbs and T cell responses in guinea pigs. These immunological responses were coincident with a suppression of vaginal HSV-2 shedding, low lesion scores, and a reduction in latent HSV-2 DNA in dorsal root ganglia to undetectable levels. These data support the further preclinical and clinical development of prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines that contain appropriate antigen and adjuvant components responsible for programming elevated CD8 T cell responses. © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.


Lin R.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology Group | Heeke D.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology Group | Liu H.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology Group | Rao E.,Translational Biology Group | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2017

The goal of most prophylactic vaccines is to elicit robust and effective neutralizing antibodies against the human pathogen target. The titer of neutralizing antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a useful biomarker for evaluating EBV vaccines. Here, the development and optimization of a 96-well micro-neutralization fluorescent imaging assay (FIA) using an EBV virus-encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) to infect adherent EBV recipient cells is reported. The conditions were optimized for generating reproducible EBV-GFP virus, for maintaining viral infectivity for months, and for efficient viral infection of recipient cell culture. The utility of the EBV-GFP FIA neutralization assay was demonstrated in a mouse study of an investigational adjuvanted EBV gp350 subunit vaccine. This assay confirmed the generation of high titers of anti-EBV-neutralizing antibodies which correlated well with the established Raji cell-based flow cytometry-based EBV neutralization assay, as well as with anti-gp350 IgG titers. In naturally infected EBV+ human serum samples, a good correlation between anti-gp350 IgG ELISA titer and EBV-GFP FIA neutralization antibody titer was also observed. Taken together, these results demonstrate the establishment of a scalable high throughput EBV-GFP FIA micro-neutralization assay suitable to measure humoral EBV vaccine response in a large-scale human trial. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Uryniak T.,Astrazeneca | Chan I.S.F.,Merck And Co. | Fedorov V.V.,Glaxosmithkline | Jiang Q.,Amgen | And 4 more authors.
Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Ideally, a clinical trial should be able to demonstrate not only a statistically significant improvement in the primary efficacy endpoint, but also that the magnitude of the effect is clinically relevant. One approach to address this question, often proposed by clinical societies and regulatory guidance, is a responder analysis, in which a continuous primary efficacy measure is dichotomized into "responders" and "nonresponders." This article represents a Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) position on responder analyses. With respect to demonstration of the existence of a treatment effect, we find that the well-known loss of statistical power associated with a responder analysis outweighs any real or perceived benefits of this approach. However, between-group comparisons of the percentages of "responders" can play a role in the assessment and reporting of the clinical meaningfulness of the treatment effect. © American Statistical Association Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research.


Ellens H.,Glaxosmithkline | Deng S.,Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Coleman J.,Statistical science | Bentz J.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 32 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2013

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits Pglycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when themaximumconcentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC 50) is10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95%confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC 50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values. © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology.


Marshall J.D.,Vaccine Platform Group | Heeke D.S.,Translational Biology Group | Rao E.,Translational Biology Group | Maynard S.K.,Vaccine Platform Group | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants. © 2016 Marshall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Vaccine Platform Group, University of Washington, MedImmune, Statistical science and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL. Products of the 4-component Ugi synthesis reaction were demonstrated to potently trigger human TLR4-transfected HEK cells but not mouse TLR4, although inclusion of the human MD2 with mTLR4 was able to partially recover activity. Co-expression of CD14 was not required for optimal activity of Ugi compounds on transfected cells, as it is for LPS. The species preference profile for the panel of Ugi compounds was found to be strongly active for human and cynomolgus monkey primary cells, with reduced but still substantial activity for most Ugi compounds on guinea pig cells. Mouse, rat, rabbit, ferret, and cotton rat cells displayed little or no activity when exposed to Ugi compounds. However, engineering the human versions of TLR4 and MD2 to be expressed in mTLR4/MD2 deficient mice allowed for robust activity by Ugi compounds both in vitro and in vivo. These findings extend the range of compounds available for development as agonists of TLR4 and identify novel molecules which reverse the TLR4 triggering preference of MPL for mouse TLR4 over human TLR4. Such compounds may be amenable to formulation as more potent human-specific TLR4L-based adjuvants than typical MPL-based adjuvants.


Borman P.,Analytical science Chemical Development | Chatfield M.,Statistical science | Jackson P.,Analytical Chemist in Analytical science chemical Development | Laures A.,Analytical Chemist in Analytical science chemical Development | Okafo G.,Glaxosmithkline
Pharmaceutical Technology | Year: 2010

This paper describes a novel approach for assessing method robustness that uses risk-based assessment tools to identify, score, prioritize, and group method parameters. The authors evaluated these parameters using reduced fractional factorial designs (i.e., reduced-method robustness) to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods before full validation. The authors' approach helped to identify high-risk method parameters earlier in the development process, thereby offering potential resource savings.


Faiola B.,Rti International | Faiola B.,Glaxosmithkline | Peterson R.A.,Glaxosmithkline | Kimbrough C.L.,Statistical science | And 2 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2010

The innate immune response is known to modify hepatocellular injury induced by toxicants. To assess the role of IL-10, a component of the innate immune response, in toxicant-induced injury of biliary epithelium, wild-type (WT) and IL-10 knockout mice (KO) were given a single toxic dose (50 mg/kg) of ±-napthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and assessed at twenty-four-hour intervals for four days following treatment. Clinical signs of toxicity were greater in WT mice. Unexpectedly, over the course of the study, there was a consistent tendency for ANIT-treated IL-10 KO mice to have less hepatocellular injury than WT mice. However, changes in the biliary epithelium differed in that there was more histologic evidence of inflammation and necrosis on days 2 and 3, respectively, in ANIT-treated IL-10 KO mice compared with WT mice. Proliferation of biliary epithelium and hepatocytes was greater and/or occurred earlier in the ANIT-treated IL-10 KO mice compared with the ANIT-treated WT mice, suggesting a greater reparative response was needed for recovery after toxicant injury in the IL-10 KO mice. Overall, our data suggest that IL-10 KO mice have less hepatocellular injury than WT mice following a toxic dose of ANIT and that biliary epithelial injury is accentuated in the KO mice. Copyright © 2010 by The Author(s).

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