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Laeyendecker O.,Johns Hopkins University | Laeyendecker O.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Church J.D.,Johns Hopkins University | Church J.D.,Decision Resources Inc. | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing. Methods: We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED) and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later). Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/ HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent. Results: During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n) obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (%) when women were pregnant (n = 20 results) compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum). In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test). Conclusions: These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

Watts D.H.,Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development | Watts D.H.,University of Witwatersrand | Brown E.R.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Maldonado Y.,Stanford University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Starting lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected pregnant women may decrease HIV progression and transmission, but adherence after delivery may be difficult, especially for asymptomatic women. We evaluated disease progression among HIV-infected women not on ART with CD4 lymphocyte counts above 200 cells per microliter at delivery. METHODS: We analyzed risk of death, progression to AIDS (stage IV or CD4 < 200 cells per microliter), or to CD4 count <350 1 year after delivery among postpartum women enrolled to a prevention of breastfeeding transmission trial using the Kaplan-Meier method. In the primary analysis, women were censored if ART was initiated. RESULTS: Among 1285 women who were not WHO stage IV or less at 6 weeks postpartum, 49 (4.3%) progressed to stage IV/CD4 <200 cells per microliter or death by 1 year. Progression to CD4 <200 cells per microliter or death occurred among 16 (4.3%) of 441 women with CD4 count of 350-549 cells per microliter and 10 (1.6%) of 713 with CD4 counts >550 cells per microliter at delivery. CD4 <350 cells per microliter by 12 months postpartum occurred among 116 (37.0%) of 350 women with CD4 count 400-549 cells per microliter and 48 (7.4%) of 713 with CD4 count >550 cells per microliter at delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Progression to AIDS or CD4 count <350 cells per microliter is uncommon through 1 year postpartum for women with CD4 counts over 550 cells per microliter at delivery, but occurred in over one third of those with CD4 counts under 550 cells per microliter. ART should be continued after delivery or breastfeeding among women with CD4 counts <550 cells per microliter if follow-up and antiretroviral adherence can be maintained. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Duong Y.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mavengere Y.,Columbia University | Patel H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Moore C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab+) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag+/Ab negative [Ab-]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to>10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag+by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Donnell D.,Statistical Center for Research and Prevention SCHARP | Ou S.-S.,Statistical Center for Research and Prevention SCHARP | Aramrattana A.,Chiang Mai University | Davis-Vogel A.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2015

Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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