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Lin M.,Station Energy | Haussener S.,Station Energy
Solar Energy | Year: 2017

We present a techno-economic analysis of solar-driven high-temperature electrolysis systems used for the production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. We consider different strategies for the incorporation of solar energy, distinguished by the use of differing technologies to provide solar power and heat: (i) thermal approaches (system 1) using concentrated solar technologies to provide heat and to generate electricity through thermodynamic cycles, (ii) electrical approaches (system 2) using photovoltaic technologies to provide electricity and to generate heat through electrical heaters, and (iii) hybrid approaches (system 3) utilizing concentrated solar technologies and photovoltaics to provide heat and electricity, respectively. We find that system 3 generates hydrogen at a high efficiency (ηSTF = 9.9%, slightly lower than the best performing system 1 with 10.6%) and at a low cost (Cfuel = $4.9/kg, lowest cost of all three systems) at reference conditions, providing evidence for the competitiveness of this hybrid approach for scaled solar hydrogen generation. Sensitivity analysis indicates an optimal working temperature for system 3 of 1350 K, which balances the increased thermal receiver losses with the reduced electrolysis cell potential when increasing the temperature. Lower working pressure always favors high system efficiency and low cost. The working current densities for thermoneutral voltage were determined for various temperature and pressure combinations, and trends for efficient and cost-effective thermoneutral operation were identified. The water conversion extent was optimized to avoid mass transport limitations in the electrodes while ensuring large fuel generation rates. For synthesis gas production, a H2/CO molar ratio of 2 can be achieved by tuning the inlet feeding molar ratio of CO2/H2O, temperature, and pressure. This study introduces a flexible simulation framework of solar-driven high-temperature electrolysis systems allowing for the assessment of competing solar integration approaches and for the guidance of the operational conditions maximizing efficiency and minimizing cost, providing pathways for scalable solar fuel processing. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Walters M.,Station Energy
Pipeline and Gas Journal | Year: 2017

According to Kansas City-based Propane Resources, a propane industry consultancy, the US is now exporting 1.1 million barrel/d or propane, which was importing about 100,000 barrel/d of propane 10 yr ago. Currently, 75% of US propane is derived from natural gas from 48% a decade ago, due to various ways of getting raw product out of the ground including hydraulic fracturing, among other methods. Due to abundance of US propane, the necessity of propane terminals in midstream operations becomes strong. Propane terminals, which are supplied by either rail or a direct connection to a pipeline, feature a battery of large storage containers ranging from 30,000 gal to 90,000 gal.


Patent
Station Energy, China Electric Power Research Institute and State Grid Corporation of China | Date: 2013-09-25

The present invention provides an energy management method of a multi-type battery energy storage power station considering charge and discharge rates, that includes: reading related data of the battery energy storage power station; calculating charge or discharge rate characteristic values of battery energy storage machine sets; calculating initial power command values of the battery energy storage machine sets; judging whether the initial power command values of the battery energy storage machine sets exceed the maximum allowable charge or discharge power of the machine sets in real time, if more than, online correcting and re-calculating the initial power command values of the battery energy storage machine sets; otherwise, setting the initial power command values of the energy storage machine sets as the power command values thereof; and summarizing the power command values of the battery energy storage machine sets, and outputting the same. With the reasonable control of the charge and discharge rates of the energy storage machines sets as target, the energy management method of the present invention is used for carrying out power coordinated control and energy management in the energy storage power station, and considering the service lives of energy storage batteries in the control strategy to achieve the functions of avoiding abuse of the energy storage batteries as much as possible, delaying battery aging and the like.


Ajayebi A.,Station Energy | Gnansounou E.,Station Energy | Kenthorai Raman J.,Station Energy
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Algae and jatropha, two types of promising and unconventional biomass, are investigated in this study for large-scale production of biodiesel. The aim is to evaluate the potential advantages and the magnitude of closeness of life cycle balances between these two biodiesel pathways compared to fossil diesel, by taking into account possible uncertainties. The geographical location of this study is India with a prospect of utilizing available wastelands in southern regions. The results indicate that the environmental performance of algal biodiesel is comparable to that of jatropha biodiesel. Both show significant GHG emission and fossil energy depletion reductions which are in the range of 36-40 and 10-25% respectively compared to fossil diesel in the studied geographic context. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Iungo G.V.,Station Energy | Porte-Agel F.,Station Energy
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2014

Aerodynamic optimization of wind farm layout is a crucial task to reduce wake effects on downstream wind turbines, thus to maximize wind power harvesting. However, downstream evolution and recovery of wind turbine wakes are strongly affected by the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow, such as wind shear and turbulence intensity, which are in turn affected by the ABL thermal stability. In order to characterize the downstream evolution of wakes produced by full-scale wind turbines under different atmospheric conditions, wind velocity measurements were performed with three wind LiDARs. The volumetric scans are performed by continuously sweeping azimuthal and elevation angles of the LiDARs in order to cover a 3D volume that includes the wind turbine wake. The minimum wake velocity deficit is then evaluated as a function of the downstream location for different atmospheric conditions. It is observed that the ABL thermal stability has a significant effect on the wake evolution, and the wake recovers faster under convective conditions. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Arumugam M.,Station Energy | Agarwal A.,Station Energy | Arya M.C.,Station Energy | Ahmed Z.,Defence Institute of Bio Energy Research Defence R and D Organization
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

The influence of different nitrogen source of varying concentrations on biomass production of green algae Scenedesmus was investigated. The result revealed that there was a significant difference among nitrogen sources in promoting algal biomass growth at lower concentrations of 5 and 10. mM. Nitrate was found to be a preferred form of nitrogen source and potassium (0.32. g/L) and sodium nitrates (0.28. g/L) performed better for biomass growth of Scenedesmus. Among the ammonical forms, urea (0.25. g/L) resulted in almost equal biomass as nitrates, making it an economical substitute for nitrogen source in large scale culturing of algae being commercially available. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Daum D.,Station Energy | Haldi F.,Station Energy | Morel N.,Station Energy
Building and Environment | Year: 2011

A personalized measure for thermal comfort has been applied for use in combination with smart controls for building automation. Using data from a field study, we first show the superiority of personalized measures for thermal comfort compared to standard non-adaptive methods. Based on this knowledge we describe a methodology, using logistic regression techniques, to convert user votes to a probability of comfort. We also describe the interface used to collect the votes. We show that, for a given subject, our thermal profile converges against the probabilities found in the field study. As a case study we implemented the measure in a control algorithm to control the shading devices. The results clarify the mode of action and also show the effectiveness of the method. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Crettanand N.,Station Energy
International Water Power and Dam Construction | Year: 2012

The potential for small storage and pumped storage plants in Switzerland for flexible electricity production is evaluated. In Switzerland, SHP (small hydropower) is defined by an installed capacity of up to 10MW. SHP produced 37700Wh and covered 5.7% of the Swiss electricity production. The technical potential was evaluated by looking primarily at existing and already planned reservoirs to reduce environmental opposition and investment costs. The Canton of Valais was chosen as the unit of evaluation as it has still considerable potential for SHP based on the newly feed-in-remuneration (FIR) projects. The institutional feasibility was studied mainly by looking at the possible remuneration instruments. The results were extrapolated for the whole country based on different criteria and the rule of proportion. The study shows that the technical potential of storage schemes lies mainly with plants on streams. With the introduction of the FIR, the number of such plants will continue to increase and thus offer opportunities for storage applications as well.


The wave of solar energy has hit Africa and most of the governments are looking into ensuring that the places without electricity are well fed with solar power gadgets. This being a very lucrative market the start-up industry is not left out and their share of innovations has given many African countries a boost in accessing the clean energy electricity. One of this start-up is Station Energy from Senegal.  Led by Alexandre Castel, this start-up is looking into structuring an investment fund to finance solar micro-facilities. When they talk about micro-facilities they mean cold rooms, cybercafés, pumping; facilities that will be rented to rural communities. This fund will gather equal distribution of funds and classic investors to build 300 micro-facilities in 5 years. The start-up is looking at giving more than just lighting the houses of individuals. It is looking at helping the rural people access technology through the opening of cybercafés that will run on solar energy. Apart from access to technology the  people in the rural areas will be able to run facilities that require electricity. This initiative will assist in modernizing Africa faster than expected. “We can build the product;our team has what it takes. Given the time and money, we can deliver on our promises,” says Castel. The start up has a very able team, consisted of 3 co-founders from technical and entrepreneurial background, cumulating 20-year experience in project management and 10 year in solar energy.  They have branches in Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso

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