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Canada

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Bulota F.,Station Center ville | Belanger P.,Station Center ville | Leduc M.,Station Center ville | Boudoux C.,Station Center ville | Godbout N.,Station Center ville
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

We present a linear all-fiber device exhibiting the functionality of a circulator, albeit for multimode fibers. We define a pseudo-circulator as a linear three-port component that transfers most of a multimode light signal from Port 1 to Port 2, and from Port 2 to Port 3. Unlike a traditional circulator which depends on a nonlinear phenomenon to achieve a non-reciprocal behavior, our device is a linear component that seemingly breaks the principle of reciprocity by exploiting the variations of etendue of the multimode fibers in the coupler. The pseudo-circulator is implemented as a 2x2 asymmetric multimode fiber coupler, fabricated using the fusion-tapering technique. The coupler is asymmetric in its transverse fused section. The two multimode fibers differ in area, thus favoring the transfer of light from the smaller to the bigger fiber. The desired difference of area is obtained by tapering one of the fiber before the fusion process. Using this technique, we have successfully fabricated a pseudo-circulator surpassing in efficiency a 50/50 beam-splitter. In all the visible and near-IR spectrum, the transmission ratio exceeds 77% from Port 1 to Port 2, and 80% from Port 2 to Port 3. The excess loss is less than 0.5 dB, regardless of the entry port. © 2016 SPIE.


Woch A.,Station Center Ville | Plamondon R.,Station Center Ville | O'Reilly C.,Station Center Ville
Human Movement Science | Year: 2011

In this paper, 14 healthy subjects in two age groups have produced rapid handwriting strokes with a direction reversal. The delta-lognormal model was used to obtain a detailed description of the velocity of these movements and of the neuromuscular synergy that produces them. This modeling also allowed the derivation of new hypothesis on the nature of the slowing effect due to aging (i.e., a direct effect or a coping strategy) and on its repartition on the different steps of the movement production (i.e., its preparation versus its execution). Our analysis revealed a substantial increase of neuromuscular response delays and a decrease of the command amplitudes with age. For the parameters that show a significant decrease in performance, the agonist and antagonist systems were affected similarly. In addition, we observed that the age has a proportional effect on the various time characteristics of the movements and that even in the case of a significant slowing down of the neuromuscular systems, the elderly can still achieve optimal movement responses, characterized by the use of a single delta-lognormal primitive. This performance might be related to the preservation of some movement timing properties and relationships between the agonist and the antagonist neuromuscular systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Romero A.,Station Center ville | Lefebvre E.,Station Center ville | Lefebvre L.-A.,Station Center ville
Recent Researches in Communications and IT - Proc. of the 15th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Communications, Part of the 15th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference, Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. on CIT'11 | Year: 2011

Medication errors are considered as the most frequent type of adverse events occurring in hospitals. Technology, such as barcode and RFID, can lower the frequency of adverse medication events by improving quality and communication, by tracking patients and medication doses, by preventing errors, by facilitating a more rapid response after the incidence of an error, and by documenting and analyzing adverse events. This paper explores four different adoption paths for improving the medication process of an emergency department, namely full barcode implementation, full RFID implementation, hybridization, or migration. More specifically, it attempts to assess if each of these adoption paths is better suited to support the activities related to the stages of the medication process.


Gaudet S.,Station Center Ville | Coia C.,Station Center Ville | Desjardins P.,Station Center Ville | Lavoie C.,Station Center Ville | Lavoie C.,IBM
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2010

The thermally induced solid-state reaction between a 10-nm-thick Ni film and a Si(001) substrate was investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction and ex situ pole figure analyses. The reaction begins with the appearance of orthorhombic Ni2 Si grains characterized by a strong fiber texture. The formation of the metastable hexagonal θ phase-which inherits the fiber texture of Ni2 Si -is then observed. This phase has been observed in every sample studied regardless of dopant, film thickness, deposition method, and anneal profile (>2000 conditions). Texture inheritance allows a reaction pathway with a lower activation energy than the expected formation through thermodynamically stable Ni silicide phases. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Boucheneb H.,Station Center ville | Barkaoui K.,French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Due to the critical role of workflows in organizations, their design must be assisted by automatic formal verification approaches. The aim is to prove formally, before implementation, their correctness w.r.t. the required properties such as achieving safely the expected services (soundness property). In this perspective, time workflow nets (TWF-nets for short) are proposed as a framework to specify and verify the soundness of workflows. The verification process is based on state space abstractions and takes into account the time constraints of workflows. However, it suffers from the state explosion problem due the interleaving semantics of TWF-nets. To attenuate this problem, this paper investigates the combination of a state space abstraction with a partial order reduction technique. Firstly, it shows that to verify soundness of a TWF-net, it suffices to explore its non-equivalent firing sequences. Then, it establishes a selection procedure of the subset of transitions to explore from each abstract state and proves that it covers all its non-equivalent firing sequences. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is assessed by some experimental results. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Autixier L.,E Source | Autixier L.,Station Center ville | Mailhot A.,Center Eau Terre Environnement | Bolduc S.,Center Eau Terre Environnement | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Paez A.,McMaster University | Moniruzzaman M.,McMaster University | Bourbonnais P.-L.,Station Center Ville | Morency C.,Station Center Ville
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2013

A mixture of modes is considered a key element towards sustainable transportation. New technologies that provide information about various modes and environments can help to inform choices regarding travel and accessibility. In this paper we describe the development of a web-based accessibility calculator prototype for the Greater Montreal Area in Canada. The core of this tool is a statistical model of trip length developed using the spatial expansion method. The model is used to obtain estimates of trip length for a desired profile, based on attributes such as age, gender, family structure, and mode of travel, as well as geographical location. These estimates are used to calculate a cumulative opportunities accessibility measure to different types of essential destinations. Travel behavior information is drawn from Montreal's 2008 Household Travel Surveys. Geocoded information about trip origins and destinations is used to calculate trip length. A broad array of covariates related to individual and household attributes, and urban form are used. A geocoded business point database is used for the calculation of cumulative opportunities. To simplify the use of the accessibility calculator, the model is implemented in a user-friendly way using Google Maps API v3 and a convenient interface. Different possible uses of the accessibility calculator are illustrated in the paper. The accessibility calculator can be used by members of the public or planners/policy makers to measure the level of accessibility for a specific address and personal profile by various modes of transportation. © 2013 The Authors.


Paez A.,McMaster University | Trepanier M.,Station Center Ville | Trepanier M.,University of Montréal | Morency C.,Station Center Ville | Morency C.,University of Montréal
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2011

Smart card automated fare payment systems are being adopted by transit agencies around the world. The data-storage characteristics of smart cards present novel opportunities to enhance transit services. On the one hand, there are fare policies, where smart card holders are given specific rebates on the use of the service based on usage patterns or levels. On the other, there are non-fare policies, for instance if holders receive advantages, such as rebates and offers, from commercial partners. The purpose of this paper is to present a geodemographic framework to identify potential commercial partnerships that could exploit the characteristics of smart cards. The framework is demonstrated using data from Montreal, Canada. Household survey data, specifically trip ends, and business data points are jointly used to determine the exposure of various types of establishments to users of the Montreal Metro network. Spatial analysis of business establishments in the neighborhood of metro stations helps to identify potential commercial partners. The results illustrate the potential of geodemographic analysis to generate intelligence of commercial interest. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Baloukas B.,Station Center ville | Lamarre J.-M.,Station Center ville | Martinu L.,Station Center ville
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2011

Smart windows offer an opportunity to reduce energy consumption. However, the use of multiple optical elements, such as low emittance coatings and electrochromic devices, is detrimental to the luminous transmittance of these high performance windows. Although the addition of antireflective coatings has helped to reduce this problem, some elements, such as high index of refraction materials still give rise to loss of light. We show that replacing the single WO3 active coating, the main component of an electrochromic device, by an appropriately designed electrochromic interference filter can significantly increase the transmittance. This active filter is based on a stack of dense and porous WO3 layers. We first study the effect of porosity on the physical and electrochromic properties of WO3 prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. We demonstrate that the overlying dense coating does not inhibit the coloration of the underlying porous coating. The best performing films are combined into a 27 layer quarter-wave interference filter which is shown to cycle between bleached and colored states, while providing attractive transmission. Finally, we discuss various filter designs which can increase the transmission of an electrochromic device in its bleached state, as well as the potential use of active filters for optical security devices possessing two levels of authentication. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Station Center Ville
Type: | Journal: European cells & materials | Year: 2015

Odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM) belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) gene cluster. It is expressed by the epithelial ameloblasts during the accrued mineralisation of enamel and by cells of the junctional epithelium (JE), a specialised portion of the gingiva that plays a critical role in periodontal health. In both cases, ODAM localises at the interface between the cells and the tooth surface. It is also present among the cells of the JE, and is distinctively highly expressed in many epithelial tumours. ODAM has been proposed to be a matricellular protein implicated in the adhesion of epithelial cells to tooth surfaces, and possibly in mediating cell status. To gain further understanding of the role of ODAM, we have created an Odam knockout (KO) mouse by deleting coding exons 2-6. Inactivation of the gene was verified by Southern blot, PCR, real-time qPCR and loss of immunostaining for the protein. Young Odam KO mice showed no readily apparent phenotype. No significant differences were observed in enamel volume and density, rod-interrod organisation, and its attrition. However, in older animals, the JE presented some detachment, an increase in inflammatory infiltrate, and apical down-growth. In addition, its regeneration was delayed following a gingivectomy challenge. Our results indicate that inactivation of Odam expression has no dramatic consequence on enamel but the phenotype in older animals replicates some JE changes seen during human periodontal disease. Altogether, our results suggest that ODAM plays a role in maintaining integrity of the JE.

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