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Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Wei W.,Sanofi S.A. | Pan C.,PRO Unlimited | Xie L.,Statinmed Research inc | Baser O.,University of Michigan
Endocrine Practice

Objective: To evaluate real-world treatment persistence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating treatment with insulin.Methods: Patient-level data were pooled from 3 previously published observational retrospective studies evaluating patients with T2DM who were previously on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and initiated with a basal analog insulin (insulin glargine or insulin detemir). Treatment persistence was defined as remaining on the study drug during the 1-year follow-up period without discontinuation or switching after study drug initiation. Analyses were conducted to identify baseline factors associated with persistence with insulin therapy and to estimate the association between insulin treatment persistence and patients' clinical and economic outcomes during the follow-up period.Results: A total of 4,804 patients with T2DM (insulin glargine: n = 4,172, insulin detemir: n = 632) were included. The average insulin persistence rate over the 1-year follow-up period was 65.0%. A significantly higher persistence rate was associated with older age, initiation with insulin glargine using either disposable pens or vial-And-syringe, and with baseline exenatide or sitagliptin use. Higher insulin treatment persistence was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (A1C) at follow-up, a greater reduction in A1C from baseline, and lower health care utilization.Conclusion: In real-world settings, treatment persistence among patients with T2DM initiating basal insulin is influenced by the type of insulin and patient factors. Greater insulin treatment persistence is linked to improved clinical outcomes and reduced health care utilization © 2014 AACE. Source

Baser O.,Statinmed Research inc | Baser O.,University of Michigan | Tangirala K.,Sanofi S.A. | Wei W.,Sanofi S.A. | Xie L.,Statinmed Research inc
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, basal-bolus strategies can improve treatment by offering dosing fexibility, and improved satisfaction, adherence, and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-world outcomes between US patients initiating analog insulin therapy with insulin glargine and those initiating with a premixed analog insulin (PMX). Methods: This was a retrospective study of data from patients ($18 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the IMPACT® database who initiated insulin treatment with insulin glargine (GLA) or a PMX. Clinical and economic outcomes were measured over one year, including persistence and adherence, consumption of insulin, glycemic outcomes, incident hypoglycemia, and health care resource utilization and cost. Results: Data from 2,502 patients were included in the analyses (n = 834 for PMX, n = 1,668 for GLA). Compared with PMX, persistence was higher and consumption of insulin was lower for GLA (both P, 0.0001). Adherence, glycemic outcomes, and hypoglycemia-related events were similar between groups, as were health care utilization and total health care costs. Diabetes-related drug and supply costs were lower for GLA than for PMX (P, 0.0001 and P = 0.046, respectively). Conclusion: In US patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, initiating insulin with once-daily GLA, rather than a PMX, is associated with increased treatment persistence and similar clinical and hypoglycemic outcomes, but lower diabetes pharmacy and supply costs. GLA may be a more fexible option than PMX. However, these results also show suboptimal glycemic control in the real-world setting despite change in treatment regimens and call for optimization in management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2013 Baser et al. Source

Xie L.,Statinmed Research inc | Zhou S.,Sanofi S.A. | Wei W.,Sanofi S.A. | Gill J.,Sanofi S.A. | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics

Objective: The study was designed to evaluate real-world data on clinical and economic outcome differences between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who use insulin glargine with vial-and-syringe delivery and those who switch to pen administration. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study analyzed medical and pharmacy claims information from the national managed-care IMPACT® database (Ingenix Inc., Salt Lake City, UT). Adults with T2DM treated with insulin glargine were evaluated. Clinical and economic outcomes over 1 year were compared between individuals who had converted from administering glargine via vial-and-syringe to the SoloSTAR® (sanofi-aventis U.S., Bridgewater, NJ) pen (Switchers) and patients who continued to use vial-and-syringe administration (Continuers). Patients from each cohort were matched using propensity score matching for a comparison sample. Results: In total, 3,893 eligible patients were identified (665 Switchers and 3,228 Continuers), with a matched cohort with 603 patients in each group. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One-year treatment persistence was significantly higher with Switchers versus Continuers (65.3% vs. 49.8%; P<0.0001). Medication possession ratio was also significantly higher among Switchers (0.79 vs. 0.76; P=0.0173). Insulin use and glycemic control were similar between groups. Healthcare utilization and total costs were also similar between groups. Higher prescription costs among Switchers were offset by lower overall and diabetes-related outpatient and inpatient costs. Conclusions: Switching from insulin glargine vial-and-syringe administration to pen delivery resulted in improved treatment adherence and persistence, with comparable clinical and economic outcomes. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Dalal M.R.,Sanofi S.A. | Xie L.,Statinmed Research inc | Baser O.,Statinmed Research inc | Baser O.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine Practice

Objective: To evaluate real-world outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving basal insulin who initiate add-on therapy with a rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. Methods: Data were extracted retrospectively from a U. S. health claims database. Adults with T2DM on basal insulin who added an RAI (basal + RAI) or GLP-1 receptor agonist (basal + GLP-1) were included. Propensity score matching (with a 1 up to 3 ratio) was used to control for differences in baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and health resource utilization. Endpoints included prevalence of hypoglycemia, pancreatic events, all-cause and diabetes-related resource utilization, and costs at 1-year follow-up. Results: Overall, 6,718 matched patients were included: 5,013 basal + RAI and 1,705 basal + GLP1. Patients in both groups experienced a similar proportion of any hypoglycemic event (P = .4079). Hypoglycemic events leading to hospitalization were higher in the basal + RAI cohort (2.7% vs. 1.8%; P = .0444). The basal + GLP-1 cohort experienced fewer all-cause (13.55% vs. 18.61%; P<.0001) and diabetes-related hospitalizations (11.79% vs. 15.68%; P<.0001). The basal + GLP-1 cohort had lower total all-cause health care costs ($18,413 vs. $20,821; P = .0002) but similar diabetes-related costs ($9,134 vs. $8,985; P<.0001) compared with the basal + RAI cohort. Conclusions: Add-on therapy with a GLP-1 receptor agonist in T2DM patients receiving basal insulin was associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower total all-cause costs compared with add-on therapy using an RAI and could be considered as an alternative to an RAI in certain patients with T2DM who do not achieve effective glycemic control with basal insulin. Copyright © 2015 AACE. Source

Miao R.,Sanofi S.A. | Wei W.,Sanofi S.A. | Lin J.,Novosys Health | Xie L.,Statinmed Research inc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology

We compared real-world clinical and economic outcomes for insulin glargine treatment administered by disposable pen and traditional vial-and-syringe injections among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using a large database of US retirees, this retrospective longitudinal study examined 1-year follow-up outcomes in patients with T2DM aged 65 years or older who were either insulin naïve and initiated insulin glargine via disposable pen (pen initiators [PI]) or vial (vial initiators [VI]) or were already insulin glargine users but either continued with a vial (vial continuers [VC]) or switched to a disposable pen (pen switchers [PS]). There were 7856 propensity-score-matched patients, including 2930 each in the PI and VI cohorts, and 998 each in the VC and PS cohorts. Compared with vial-and-syringe users, the disposable pen users had significantly greater treatment persistence (P < .0001 for both comparisons), duration of persistence (P < .0001 for both), and adherence (P < .01 for both) and lower insulin daily average consumption (P < .05 for both). Compared with the VI cohort, the PI cohort had significantly fewer hypoglycemia-related events (P = .0164). Total health care costs were comparable for the respective matched cohorts. In elderly patients with T2DM receiving insulin glargine therapy, initiating or switching to a disposable pen was associated with better treatment persistence and adherence than initiating or continuing with vial-and-syringe, without increased total health care costs. Among insulin-naïve patients, initiating insulin glargine by disposable pen was also associated with significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia compared with vial-and-syringe patients. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society. Source

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