State Veterinary Institute Olomouc

Olomouc, Czech Republic

State Veterinary Institute Olomouc

Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Bardon J.,State Veterinary Institute Olomouc | Bardon J.,Palacky University | Pudova V.,Palacky University | Kolackova I.,Veterinary Research Institute Brno | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie | Year: 2017

Objective: Thermotolerant species of the genus Campylobacter are the important agents causing human foodborne infections throughout the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of nine putative virulence genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients and from foods (poultry meat, pork liver), to determine the resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents and to detect four resistance genes. Matherial and methods: The presence of the virulence genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, virB11, ciaB, wlaN, iam, dnaJ and racR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 94 Campylobacter spp. isolates from humans and 123 campylobacters from foods. The phenotypic resistance to selected antimicrobial agents was tested with microdilution method in 82 human isolates and 91 food isolates. The isolates with antibiograms were tested for the presence of blaOXA-61, tet(O), aph-3-1 and cmeB genes by PCR with specific primers. Results: In both human and food C. jejuni isolates the prevalence of the studied virulence genes, especially dnaJ, racR, ciaB genes and the toxigenic genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, was considerably higher than in C. coli isolates. The only exception was the iam gene identified in only C. coli. The tested isolates of both C. jejuni and C. coli were highly resistant to quinolone antibiotics. Additionally, C. coli was also more resistant to erythromycin, streptomycin and, in case of isolates from pork liver, to tetracycline. High prevalence rates of genes encoding antibiotic resistance was noted for the blaOXA-61 and tet(O) genes in both Campylobacter species. Conclusions: The presented study is the first to assess the presence of genes for virulence and resistance to antibiotics in thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans and foods in the Czech Republic. The resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents was also assessed. The prevalence of genes responsible for virulence and resistance is rather varied in thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. © 2017 Czech Medical Association J.E. Purkyne. All rights reserved.

Polisenskaa I.,R.Ø.S.A. | Pfohl-Leszkowicz A.,National Graduate School of Agronomy, Toulouse | Hadjeba K.,National Graduate School of Agronomy, Toulouse | Dohnal V.,Mendel University in Brno | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

The aims of the study were to obtain information about the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in cereals harvested in the Czech Republic and to compare two analytical procedures for detecting OTA. A total of 34 cereal samples, including two matrix reference materials (R-Biopharm, Germany), were analysed. The results were compared with the limit for raw cereal grains used as a foodstuff according to Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006, which allows a maximum OTA level of 5 μg kg-1. Compared were two methods based on the high-performance liquid chromatography principle, one using the immunoaffinity columns OchraTest™ (VICAM) and the second based on solvent partition (PART), both followed by fluorescence detection. The highest OTA contents were found in two barley samples. According to the method employed, the results for the first sample (malting barley) were VICAM = 31.43 μg kg-1 and PART = 44.74 μg kg-1. For the second sample (feeding barley) they were VICAM = 48.63 μg kg-1 and PART = 34.40 μg kg-1. Two samples of bread wheat had an OTA content approaching the legal limit (VICAM = 4.71 μg kg-1 and PART = 6.03 μg kg-1; VICAM = 4.12 μg kg-1 and PART = 3.95 μg kg-1). CIT was analysed using the PART method only, and its highest content (93.64 μg kg-1) was found for the malting barley sample with high OTA content (44.74 μg kg-1 as analysed using PART). © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Bardon J.,State Veterinary Institute Olomouc | Bardon J.,Palacky University | Kolar M.,Palacky University | Karpiskova R.,National Institute of Public Health | Hricova K.,Palacky University
Food Control | Year: 2011

Infections caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are among the most frequent bacterial diseases from food in Europe. An important source of infection is poultry. The aim was to perform the first nationwide study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Czech Republic. Samples of chilled and frozen broiler chickens were obtained from supermarkets localized in the eight largest cities in the Czech Republic. From February to November 2009, a total of 120 samples of chilled and 120 samples of frozen poultry were collected and assessed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed according to the ISO 10272-1:2006 and ISO 10272-2:2006 methods. The microdilution method was used to test the resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolates to selected antibiotics. High prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in chilled poultry (75%). The prevalence was significantly lower (37%) in frozen poultry. The most prevalent species was Campylobacter jejuni detected in 70% of positive findings, followed by Campylobacter coli (18%). In 12% of cases, the samples were contaminated by both C. jejuni and C. coli. The species Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis were not detected. The highest resistance rates were to quinolone antibiotics and ampicillin. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bardon J.,State Veterinary Institute Olomouc | Bardon J.,Palacky University | Kolar M.,Palacky University | Karpiskova R.,National Institute of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Brno | Year: 2012

In recent years, a negative trend of increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains has been noted worldwide. In addition to their prevalence in humans, MRSA strains have also been detected in animals, both pets and food-producing animals, especially in pigs. At the same time, transmission of MRSA strains from animals to humans has been documented. This study brings results from the first nationwide survey on the prevalence of MRSA in herds of breeding pigs, carried out throughout the Czech Republic in accordance with the Commission Decision 2008/55/EC, including brief characteristics of isolates. In 2008, a total of 283 pooled samples (dust swabs from partitions between pens) from the holdings of breeding pigs were analyzed. In five cases, MRSA isolates were detected, with a prevalence of 1.8%. All the isolated strains belonged to a single sequence type ST398. It may be said that at present, the prevalence of MRSA on pig farms does not pose a significant general epidemiological risk for the human population.

Svobodova L.,Palacky University | Bednarova D.,GeneProof a.s. | Ruzicka F.,Masaryk University | Chrenkova V.,Charles University | And 8 more authors.
Mycoses | Year: 2016

Clinical yeast isolates belonging to Candida pelliculosa, Candida utilis and Candida fabianii are difficult to distinguish in a routine mycology laboratory using common biochemical tests. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of C. pelliculosa, C. utilis and C. fabianii in clinical samples and to compare their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to systemic antifungals. Two hundred and forty-eight clinical yeast isolates obtained from eight large hospitals in the Czech Republic were included in this study. Identification was performed biochemically using ID 32C kit and by MALDI-TOF MS. MICs were determined using colorimetric broth dilution Sensititre YeastOne panels. From a total number of 248 isolates, 175 were identified as C. pelliculosa and 73 as C. utilis using the biochemical kit. In contrast, MALDI-TOF MS identified 222 isolates as C. fabianii, 20 as C. pelliculosa and 6 as C. utilis. The highest mean MICs were found in C. fabianii and, regardless of the studied species, in isolates from blood cultures and central venous catheters. MALDI-TOF MS revealed C. fabianii to be most prevalent in clinical samples as compared with the other studied species. Higher MIC values in C. fabianii support the importance of correct identification of this species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Bardon J.,Palacky University | Bardon J.,State Veterinary Institute Olomouc | Husickova V.,Palacky University | Chroma M.,Palacky University | Kolar M.,Palacky University
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is a global medical problem requiring close cooperation between veterinary and human physicians. Raw materials and foods of animal origin may be not only a source of pathogenic bacteria causing alimentary tract infections but also a source of bacteria with a dangerous extent of resistance to antibiotics, potentially entering the human food chain. This article presents results of the first study in the Czech Republic detecting the presence of Enterobacteriaceaeproducing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in swabs collected in slaughterhouses from surfaces of healthy animal carcasses. In 2012, swabs taken from pig (n = 166) and cattle (n = 140) carcass surfaces were analyzed. In 17% of 53 studied slaughterhouses, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains were isolated. ESBLs were found in 11 and 4% of porcine and bovine samples, respectively. Swabs collected from pigs yielded 18 ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The bla genes were found to encode production of CTX-M-1 group enzymes in 16 strains, SHV in one case, and both CTX-M-1-like and TEM in another case. In swabs taken from cattle, five ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated. In three cases, the bla genes for CTX-M-1-like production were identified; in two cases, genes for both CTX-M-1-like and TEM production were found. The similarity/identity of ESBL-positive isolates was compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This is the first report and characterization of the presence and nature of ESBL-producing E. coli in swabs collected from surfaces of healthy pig and cattle carcasses in slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.

Veverkova L.,Palacky University | Hradilova S.,Palacky University | Milde D.,Palacky University | Panacek A.,Palacky University | And 5 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2 - and AgCl3 2- for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University Hospital Olomouc, State Veterinary Institute Olomouc and Palacky University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia | Year: 2016

Haemophilus influenzae new strain acquisition has been demonstrated to increase the relative risk of acute exacerbation fourfold in contrast to colonisation or chronic infection by the same strain in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, molecular typing techniques are not suitable for routine use due to cost, labour-intensity and need for special expertise. We tested two techniques potentially useful for routine typing, namely the newly available MALDI-TOF MS and the modified McRAPD compared to MLST as the gold standard.In 10 patients (10.8%) suffering from COPD or cystic fibrosis, H. influenzae isolates were recovered repeatedly at different timepoints from the same patient during the study period. This allowed for thirteen pairwise comparisons of typing results in isolates recovered consecutively from the same patient to test the ability of the techniques to uncover new strain acquisition.MLST detected 9 cases of new strain acquisition among the 13 pairwise comparisons. However, MALDI-TOF MS reported all 13 pairs as different and thus new. In contrast, McRAPD was able to differentiate all the new strain acquisitions from pre-existing ones, both by visual inspection of melting profiles and by Relative Significant Difference values.Unlike MALDI-TOF MS, McRAPD appears to be a suitable candidate for routine discrimination of new strain acquisitions because of its accuracy and, rapid, easy and economic performance.

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