Stepanek O.,State Veterinary Institute Jihlava |
Horin P.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2016
Of 34 breeds kept in the Czech Republic 45,604 sheep were genotyped for codons 136, 154 and 171 in the prion protein gene (PRNP) during the years 2006–2014. In this cohort, haplotypes ARR, ARQ, ARH, AHQ, VRQ, AHR and ARK were detected. The haplotype AF141RQ associated with susceptibility to atypical scrapie was observed in nine out of 30 breeds analysed for this purpose. In addition, six rare nonsynonymous substitutions producing haplotypes AT137RQ, AN138RQ, AG151RQ, AH151RQ, ARL168Q and ARQE175 were identified in various breeds. Due to their low frequencies, these polymorphisms are of no potential importance for the breeding programme. With regard to their genetic particularity, Sumavka, Valachian and Cameroon breeds were screened for additional polymorphisms. Further haplotypes, AR143RQ and AS146RQ, were found in Sumavka and Cameroon, and in Valachian sheep, respectively. Frequencies of the ARR (resistance-associated), VRQ (susceptibility-associated) haplotypes, and of the most resistant ARR/ARR genotype calculated for sheep born in the years 2001–2003 and 2011–2013 documented effects of the 10 year-lasting national breeding programme. The total frequency of ARR doubled from 36.8 to 75.8 %, while the frequency of VRQ decreased from 4 to 0.7 %. The total frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype increased from 17.7 to 59 %. These data show that the national scrapie resistance breeding programme has had an important desirable effect on haplotype and genotype frequencies of PRNP in Czech sheep. © 2016 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan
Haklova-Kocikova B.,Slovak Academy of Sciences |
Hiznanova A.,University of P.J. Safarik |
Majlath I.,University of P.J. Safarik |
Racka K.,State Veterinary Institute Jihlava |
And 6 more authors.
Parasites & vectors | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: Blood parasites of the genus Karyolysus Labbé, 1894 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Karyolysidae) represent the protozoan haemogregarines found in various genera of lizards, including Lacerta, Podarcis, Darevskia (Lacertidae) and Mabouia (Scincidae). The vectors of parasites are gamasid mites from the genus Ophionyssus.METHODS: A total of 557 individuals of lacertid lizards were captured in four different localities in Europe (Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia) and blood was collected. Samples were examined using both microscopic and molecular methods, and phylogenetic relationships of all isolates of Karyolysus sp. were assessed for the first time. Karyolysus sp. 18S rRNA isolates were evaluated using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses.RESULTS: A total of 520 blood smears were examined microscopically and unicellular protozoan parasites were found in 116 samples (22.3% prevalence). The presence of two Karyolysus species, K. latus and K. lacazei was identified. In total, of 210 samples tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 64 individuals (prevalence 30.5%). Results of phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of four haplotypes, all part of the same lineage, with other parasites identified as belonging to the genus Hepatozoon.CONCLUSIONS: Classification of these parasites using current taxonomy is complex - they were identified in both mites and ticks that typically are considered to host Karyolysus and Hepatozoon respectively. Furthermore although distortions to the intermediate host erythrocyte nuclei were observed, the defining characteristic of Karyolysus, the haplotypes were nearly identical to those reported from lizards in the Iberian Peninsula, where such distortions were not reported and which were thus identified as Hepatozoon. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, neither vertebrate host, nor geographical patterns of the studied blood parasites could be established.
Navratilova P.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
Vyhnalkova J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
Jerabkova J.,State Veterinary Institute Jihlava |
Janstova B.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2010
The reference method for the detection of residues of antimicrobial substances in raw materials and foods of animal origin is the plate diffusion method both in the Czech Republic and the European Union (EU). The aim of the study was to verify the suitability of the plate diffusion method with strain B. cereus CCM 869 (= ATCC 11778) that is recommended by EU guidelines (the STAR protocol) for the detection of residues of tetracycline antibiotics (chlortetracycline, tetracycline and oxytetracycline) in milk, and to compare its sensitivity with that of strain B. subtilis CCM 4062 (= BGA) that is recommended for the detection of antibiotics according to the guidelines of the Czech National Reference Laboratory. Chlortetracycline was the only substance reliably detected by the methods tested at levels equal to the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.1 mg·kg-1. The sensitivity of the assay with B. cereus for tetracycline and oxytetracycline were six and eight times the MRL, respectively. The sensitivity for tetracycline was higher when using the discs of a diameter of 12.7 mm. The assay with B. cereus facilitated detection of tetracycline at a concentration of 0.5 mg·1-1 and oxytetracycline at a concentration of 0.7 mg-1-1. Neither of the methods reached the required sensitivities for tetracycline and oxytetracycline, respectively. ©2010 VÚP Food Research Institute, Bratislava.
Hlavackova L.,University of Pardubice |
Vytrasova J.,University of Pardubice |
Novotna S.,University of Pardubice |
Motkova-Snevajsova P.,University of Pardubice |
And 2 more authors.
Analytical Letters | Year: 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of selected microorganisms on mycotoxins production by molds of the genus Fusarium, namely HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Appropriate nutritive media were inoculated with test microorganisms (Rhodotorula spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pantoea agglomerans), subsequently inoculated with Fusarium molds, then incubated under various conditions. Content of Fusarium mycotoxins in individual samples was determined using HPLC/MS/MS. Separation of mycotoxins was performed on a C18 stationary phase column using gradient elution. Total analysis time was less than 20 minutes. In examining the effect of accompanying microflora on the production of HT-2 and T-2 toxins, a decrease in production of both mycotoxins was observed under various experimental conditions. Greatest inhibitory effect was observed in the presence of Pantoea agglomerans CCM 298 bacteria. It was found that the amount of HT-2 and T-2 toxins produced by the examined mold strains also depends on cultivation conditions and the nutritive medium used. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Radrova J.,Charles University |
Mrackova M.,Charles University |
Galkova Z.,Charles University |
Lamka J.,Charles University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2016
In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period. © The Authors 2016.