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Sanchez-Macias D.,State University of Southern Manabi | Laubscher A.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Castro N.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Arguello A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Jimenez-Flores R.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO2 as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40×106 Pa) of supercritical CO2 on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO2. Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent candidate as a low-fat goat cheese, lower in triglycerides and cholesterol but still with all the health benefits inherent in goat milk. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Hernandez-Castellano L.E.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Morales-Delanuez A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Moreno-Indias I.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Torres A.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2013

Within the subtropical outermost regions of Europe, meat is obtained from two sources: importation and local production. Transportation time is the critical factor that affects imported meat (IM) and carcass quality, whereas local meat (LM) is frequently obtained from regional breeds. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate local and imported carcasses and meat quality in order to promote the consumption of local breeds, using the Canary Islands (Spain) as a model for other subtropical outermost regions. For this study 20 half-carcasses from Palmera breed and 20 imported half-carcasses were used at two different weights (5 and 10 kg). Five-kilogram local lamb carcasses had less moisture and more protein than did comparable IM carcasses. LM did, however, contain lower levels of saturated fatty acids and more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids than did IM. The atherogenicity index for LM was quite low, therefore, allowing local vendors to market their product as a healthier meat. Differences between LM and IM were not as dramatic when 10-kg carcasses were compared. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Hernandez-Castellano L.E.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Morales-Delanuez A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Moreno-Indias I.,Instituto Tecnologico Agroalimentario | Torres A.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2013

Within the outermost regions of Europe, meat is obtained from two sources: importation and local production. Transportation time is the critical factor that affects imported meat (IM) and carcass quality, whereas local meat (LM) is frequently obtained from regional breeds. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate sensorial differences between IM and LM using the Canary Islands as an example of an outermost region of Europe. Two kinds of sensory analyses were performed: a triangular test with 31 untrained consumers and a descriptive test with a trained 12-member tasting panel. In the triangular test 46.7% of consumers were able to discriminate between the two kinds of meat, and there was higher preference for LM than IM (63.6% vs. 36.4%, respectively). Several sensorial differences between LM and IM were found in aspects such as lamb smell or hardness by trained panel. For this reason this study can be taken as a model to promote LM breeds in order to make them more competitive in markets. However, further studies are needed to analyse carcass and meat quality in order to standardise LM. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Torres M.,Agricultural University of Havana | Delgado M.H.,State University of Southern Manabi
Revista Electronica de Veterinaria | Year: 2014

This work is a review of the skills and knowledge that veterinary must have in order to cover the needs of technical, scientific, production, regulatory and legislative to contribute to the obtainment of safe and quality food and to promote public health in the approach of a single health. Performance an analysis of the different regulatory requirements and requirements contained therein, for the different links in the productive chains. Among the documents discussed are the good practices, codes of Hygiene, Biosafety documents, Animal Welfare and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), all seen from the angle of the responsibilities of veterinarians. Another of the aspects discussed are the laws that support the food trade and the World Organization of Trade (WTO) agreements which must be in the domain of veterinary. Finally, discusses the recommendations of the Organization World of the Animal Health (OIE) in relation to the competencies to be achieved by a veterinarian in his training and related professional activities in their actions by to ensure the quality and safety of foods of animal origin, giving examples of the programs of training of Cuba and a reflection of the approaches in Ecuador on this subject. Source


Rizzello C.G.,University of Bari | Coda R.,University of Bari | Macias D.S.,State University of Southern Manabi | Pinto D.,Giuliani S.p.a. | And 6 more authors.
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2013

Background: Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation.Results: Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of eight peptides was identified, corresponding to fragments of plantaricins PlnH or PlnG. Treatments with fermented Echinacea suspension exerted immune-modulatory effects on Caco-2 cells. The fermentation with Lb. plantarum 1MR20 or with the association between strains C2 and 1MR20 had the highest effect on the expression of TNF-α gene.Conclusions: E. purpurea subjected to lactic acid fermentation could be suitable for novel applications as functional food dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations. © 2013 Rizzello et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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